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Processors of Intel from 2 Mb of the cache memory

Evgenie Rudometov

rudometov@rudometov.com

Recently Intel corporation has declared course on "platformizatsiju" the solutions. The declaration of the new processors created on processing technique of 90 nanometers and possessing the cache memory of great volume became one of steps . New processors from Intel are oriented both to a server segment of the computer market, and for desktop systems

Strengthening the presence in the computer market Intel corporation has presented a number of new processors and platforms with the expanded support of a 64-bit mode improved by productivity, raised energosberezheniem and safety high level. The new solutions which are an illustration of transition from increase of productivity at the expense of priority of overgrowth of clock rates to perfection of the architecture and optimal problem solving, facing to users, are presented in segments of desktop PCs, servers and workstations. The new approach of corporation consists in development of optimal platforms for each segment of the market (a Fig. 1)

Fig. 1. The new strategy of Intel

Simultaneously with the declaration of new solutions Intel corporation has informed on the schedules on release of server platforms of the new generation which architecture supports processors with two kernels. It is one more step forward on path to multinuclear processors.

Release by corporation of Intel of new client and server platforms for firms in a combination to expected release of Windows x64 Edition will allow to output economic 64-bit platforms on the mass market. Users can take advantage of new powerful 64-bit functions of Windows, not refusing from used 32-bit Windows applications

The new advanced 64-bit processor of Intel Xeon was known earlier under code name Irwindale. In this processor two the size of the cache memory of 2nd level that provides to 18 % a productivity gain in comparison with the previous version of the processor is increased. New results of test TeraByte TPC-H for the cluster systems, published by IBM company, show high level of scalability of new platforms on the basis of 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon. Thus metrics exceed earlier reached on 52 %. Active demand has generated record sizes of production - approximately for 8 months by Intel factories has been made 2 million 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon.

The new processor of Intel Xeon compatible to the previous generation of processors of Intel Xeon, includes functions energosberezhenija with support of processing technique Demand Based Switching, the improved productivity and flexibility. New platforms support memory DDR2-400 and bus PCI Express architecture.

The size of deliveries of 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon in IV quarter 2004 has exceeded size of deliveries of 32-bit processors. For 6 months first million 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon has been released; second million will be put all for 3 months – already by the end of February, 2005 Before 80 % of processors of Intel Xeon which will be put in I quarter 2005 have been declared, that, will support a 64-bit mode

Productivity of new platforms is provided both great volume of the cache memory of the second level, and high clock rate. But high efficiency is not given free of charge. A high efficiency consequence is high energopotreblenie and a heat release. All it demands appropriate resources of power supplies and cooling that is mirrored in the finite price of system and expenses for maintenance. To cut expenditures, and at the same time to raise dependability and a trouble-free operation resource the firm processing techniques inserted in the architecture of processors help. For example, processing technique Demand Based Switching, called to provide energosberezhenie and reduction teploobrazovanija at the expense of lowering of clock rate and a kernel supply voltage during the periods of incomplete loading of the processor and installation of peak values at the maximum loading demanding maximum productivity.

In addition to frequency potential and the built in cache memory of great volume high efficiency is provided by hardware support of 64-bit calculations.

Here it is necessary to remind, that modern computers operate with the data presented in a binary format – by means of units and nulls. And the term "64-bit" concerns the maximum size of binary numbers which the processor can handle in a certain instant as the data stored in memory (internal registers or external memory DRAM) or as external memory addresses. Theoretically 64-bit computer systems support addressing to 16 eksabajt (264 byte) memories, including the actual storage of system and the virtual storage which physically is not present at system, however uses the processor. The majority of modern computer systems (and applications) 32-bit data meeting requirements of the majority of client applications and server-based applications of the interface level and supporting addressing to 4 GB (232 byte) use memories. However 64-bit processors support addressing of a much bigger memory size: For example, 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon support addressing to 1 terabyte (1024 Gbytes) memories, and, for example, processors of Intel Itanium 2 support addressing to 1 petabajta (1024 Tbyte) memories. Specified above digit concern size of the actual storage which can be installed in system.

However it is necessary to mark, that for processors with support of 64-bit calculations possibilities of traditional 32-bit applications up to the mark dependability, provided with appropriate platform solutions are saved.

A number of used processing techniques concerns such solutions. It, for example, autodetect and memory purification. It is reached by such processing techniques as memory mirroring, backup DIMM, automatic switching from a two-channel mode on one-channel at glitch, etc. architecture Perfection, for example, at the expense of implantation PCI Express has allowed not only to reach application of codes of an error correction, memory cleaning high capacity, but also to give possibility of changeover of maps without server turn off. Almost all adapters developed now are grounded on PCI Express architecture. It is necessary to add, that special solutions which concern, for example, RAID, it was possible to raise dependability and data protection. And protection against a number of virus attacks will be provided with processing technique Execute Disable Bit built in the processor: the improved protection of system and data from the viruses, using vulnerability of type buffer overflow.

As to productivity of new Intels Xeon c 2 Mb of cache memory L2 this parametre can be observed on an example of matching with the previous models of this class of the processors supplied of 1 Mb L2. Some estimations of such matching are resulted in a Fig. 2. And in a Fig. 3 results of testing of dual-processor systems are presented.

Fig. 2. Matching of models of processors of Intel Xeon with the cache memory of 2 and 1 Mb

Fig. 3. Productivity matching of one and dual-processor systems created on the basis of processors of Intel Xeon with the cache memory of 2 Mb

It is necessary to mark, that Intel corporation offers two bars of 64-bit processors: processors of Intel Xeon with 64-bit addressing and processors of the set of Intel Itanium. According to IDC, these two bars of production differ from each other, and will co-exist in the market. Though both types of processors contain 64-bit registers and support addressing bolshego a memory size, than 32-bit processors, they differ other characteristics and will use for different working loads. To promote faster transition to 64-bit processing techniques and for the applications support, working in a 64-bit mode, but not requiring special possibilities of a platform of Intel Itanium, Intel corporation has released 64-bit processors of Intel Xeon providing possibility of transition to 64-bit systems with the minimum risk. Now there was a possibility simultaneously to use 32-/64-razrjadnye applications practically without superfluous expenditures. It will allow to pass step-by-step to 64-bit systems in three stages, since pure 32-bit applications, passing to 32-bit applications in 64-bit operating systems and ending the pure 64-bit environments. In the mixed or transferable environments some servers can use a combination of 32-bit and 64-bit applications, and thus productivity of 32-bit applications becomes the main criterion.

However estimating the products oriented for server sector, it is not necessary to forget and about desktop solutions as on these systems the main is necessary users and sales of computers.

For desktop computers Intel corporation has declared at once some models of the processors possessing, as well as their server clones the cache memory of the second level of 2 Mb. For this sector five new processors are created: Intel of Pentium 4 Extreme Edition with clock rate of 3,73 GHz from processing techniques Hyper-Threading (HT) and four new processors of Intel of Pentium of 4 series 6xx, also supporting processing technique HT. All five new processors support 64-bit addressing of memory by means of processing technique of Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel EM64T).

Fig. 4. Intel schedules on development of platforms for house users

By the way, as it is declared, Intel corporation plans to use processing technique of Intel EM64T in all processors of Intel represented in this year for desktop PCs, including in processors of Intel Celeron D which release will take place later.

Intel schedules on development of platforms for house users are presented in a Fig. 4.

Basic performances of new processors in comparison with their predecessors

The characteristic

Intel OF PENTIUM 4 XE
3.73 GHz

Intel OF PENTIUM 4 XE
3.46 GHz

Intel OF PENTIUM 4
660

Intel OF PENTIUM 4
560

Tehprotsess, nanometer

90

130

90

90

Quantity of transistors, million

169

178

169

125

The plug

LGA775

LGA775

LGA775

LGA775

Frequency of a kernel, MHz

3730

3430

3600

3600

Size L1 of data, Kbytes

16

8

16

16

Size L1 of instructions

12 Kuops

8 Kuops

12 Kuops

12 Kuops

Size L2, a Kbyte

2048

512

2048

1024

Size L3, KB

2048

Frequency of the processor bus, MHz

1066

1066

800

800

Support of the expanded instruction sets

MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3

MMX, SSE, SSE2

MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3

MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3

Support of 64 bits of extensions

EM64T

EM64T

In a combination to popular chipsets of Intel 925/915 Express these processors will allow to increase high-speed performance and to reduce response time of computer platforms.

New processors support the new operating system of Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition which will allow to take advantage of all advantages of 64-bit addressing of memory.

Processors of Intel of Pentium of 4 series 6xx with advanced processing technique of Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST) give new possibilities energosberezhenija for desktop PCs. Processing technique EIST provides energosberezhenie at the expense of reduction of average energopotreblenija the processor.

The estimation of productivity of the processor of Intel of Pentium of 4 series 6xx with the cache memory of 2 Mb is presented in a Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. An estimation of productivity of Intel of Pentium of 4 series 6xx with the cache memory of 2 Mb

The processor of Intel of Pentium 4 Extreme Edition with clock rate of 3,73 GHz with processing technique HT has the high-powered system bus with frequency of 1066 MHz and 2 Mb of the cache memory 2 levels that allows to raise productivity of system at playback of video of high clearness, computer games and others resursoemkih the applications using great volumes of data. The estimation of productivity of the processor of Intel of Pentium 4 Extreme Edition with the cache memory of 2 Mb is presented in a Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. An estimation of productivity of Intel of Pentium 4 Extreme Edition with the cache memory of 2 Mb

Processors of Intel of Pentium of 4 series 6xx with processing technique HT have clock rate to 3,60 GHz, frequency of the system bus of 800 MHz, the doubled size of the cache memory 2 levels (2 Mb), and also support advanced processing technique of Intel SpeedStep (EIST). This function energosberezhenija is supported by the operating system of Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. Besides, great volume of the cache memory provides potential advantages on productivity while processing technique Execute Disable Bit gives maximum protection against certain sorts of viruses at usage in a combination to Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2.

In article open substances of corporation of Intel are used


Article is published in log the Computer the Price (Computer Price).

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