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Server processors of Intel

Evgenie Rudometov

In the course of a number of the led actions the corporation of Intel has summed up ten years' release of the server processors and has declared the planyh developments of the given sector of the computer market

The quantity of the stored information demanding fast processing, permanently increases. Thus rates are that, that quite often single computers any more do not cope with this fast increasing stream. The important factor of rise of functionality of computers is their multiplexing in local and wide-area networks. It gives the chance to provide not only operative transfer of the information between computers, but also sharing of shared resources for the purpose of their more effective application, an exception of the backup, essential saving of resources. Besides, it allows to organise simultaneous performance of the tasks which requirements exceed possibilities of individual systems, operation of several users with the common hardware and program resources, multisequencing of calculations between several systems, etc. The handle organisation such multiplexing is incurred by specially selected, powerful computers — the servers which architecture is as much as possible adapted for solution of the given uneasy tasks. A basis of such systems are specially created processors.

This year 10 years from that day as Intel corporation has presented the first product intended for the server market, - the processor of Intel of Pentium Pro are executed. For this desjatiletku the server direction of Intel has reached certain successes. By estimations IDC, c 1996 worldwide it has been installed more than 30 million servers on the basis of Intel architecture. And the beginning to it has put Intel of Pentium Pro, become by the ancestor of the whole direction.

The processor of Intel of Pentium Pro, released in November, 1995, has been oriented to the market of servers and workstations. On the architecture it belonged to the sixth generation of processors of Intel (Р6) and considerably differed from those products that used for creation of desktop personal computers. Optimised under 32-bit applications, it has been packed in one tank with a cache memory chip that was new in the architecture of processors.

Were released at first on processing techniques 0, 50 microns, and then on 0,35 microns that has allowed to increase size of the cache memory of the second level (L2) with 256 to 512 Kbytes, and in then to 1024 Kbytes. Included 5,5 million transistors. Clock rate — from 150 to 200 MHz. Frequency of the bus — 60 and 66 MHz, Cache memory L1 — 16 Kbytes. Supported all instructions of the processor of Intel of Pentium. The double independent bus for the first time has been entered into the architecture (DIB). Unfortunately, because of limitations of solid-state technologies of that time, the processor of Intel of Pentium Pro possessed very high cost price that constrained its wide implantation. However it accumulated a number of perspective processing techniques which have been fulfilled in the course of its maintenance. Further all innovations have inherited the subsequent processors of desktop and server sectors presented by Intel of Pentium II and Intel of Pentium II Xeon, created on more perfect solid-state technologies.

So, in 1998 on light there was a processor of Intel of Pentium II Xeon, including 7,5 million transistors and made on the most modern for that moment of a 0,25-micron tehprotsessu. Actually new server processor was an improved version of the processor of Intel of Pentium II created for desktop systems and quitted year earlier. The server processor differed from the prototype some characteristics, and also constructional features, for example, cartridge type. For positioning of the processor of Intel of Pentium II Xeon in a server segment Intel corporation has added word Xeon in the name of the trade mark. By the way, considering server processors, it is necessary to mark, that there was a segmentation of products of Intel on consumer niches. It has expressed, for example, in appearance of the bar of budgetary processors of a class of Intel Celeron for the PC and fixing of brand Xeon behind server production of Intel. Coming back to Intel of Pentium II Xeon it is necessary to mark, that appearance of the following bar of processors became its development. It became Intel of Pentium III Xeon.

The processor of Intel of Pentium III Xeon has been released in 1999 on a 0,25-micron tehprotsessu and originally contained 9,5 million transistors. Then production has passed to a 0,18-micron, and the number of transistors has reached 28 million Basis, as well as in a case, the previous bars there was P6 architecture. The different models of the processors released for 2 years of existence of the given bar, have been intended for sectors of server arrangements and workstations. Supported models of the given bar from 1 to 8 processors.

In 2001 on change to P6 architecture which ancestor has appeared as Intel of Pentium Pro, NetBurst architecture has come. For the first time all its innovations have been tested on table models of the processors which have received the name of Intel of Pentium  4. Further taking into account the stored experience on the basis of NetBurst architecture the appropriate processor oriented to the market of servers and workstations has been released. It has received the name of Intel Xeon. The first representatives have been created on the basis of kernel Foster and of 1,7 GHz worked on frequency of a kernel . Supported dual-processor patterns, used Socket  603. In the course of perfection a number of refinements has been inserted. Thanks to the newest innovations, including high clock rates, models of this set of the processor have provided productivity rise on 30-90 % on matching with the predecessors — Intel of Pentium III Xeon. For 4 years of existence processors of the set of Intel Xeon have replaced a number of kernels and three tehprotsessa: 180 nanometers, 130 nanometers, 90 nanometers. The quantity of transistors has grown 42 to 178 million, and in a variant of the processor of Intel Xeon MP created for multiprocessing systems in 2002, — to 286 million frequency of a kernel and the system bus, cache memory size Have increased, there was a support of some perspective processing techniques. As examples it is necessary to mark support of multithreaded applications in the multitask (Hyper-Threading environment, reduced energopotreblenie (Demand Based Switching), the 64-bit extension of addressing of memory (Intel EM64T), improved functions RAS and others.

The set of processors of Intel Xeon


Intel Xeon MP

64 bits of Intel Xeon MP

64 bits of Intel Xeon MP

Tehprotsess, nanometer




Frequency of a kernel, GHz


3,66, 3,16

3,33, 3,0, 2,83

Cache memory L2, Mb




Cache memory L3, Mb

1/2/4 (Vstr.)



The system bus, MHz




Chip set


Intel E8500

Intel E8500

The platform on the basis of processors of Intel Xeon in the development uses advantages of fast development of the server market:

·         Annual investments of independent software developers exceed 500 million dollars;

·        170 thousand registered implementators of solutions;

·        20 thousand suppliers of solutions;

·         20 operating systems optimised for the given platform.

Fig. 1. The forecast of transition of server systems for 64-bit calculations

Implantation of perspective processing techniques has provided popularity of the appropriate platforms, called to solve a wide class of the tasks, calculations demanding great volume. And considerable increase of power of server systems is provided with transition to 64-bit calculations (a Fig. 1). It is supported both the built in resources of processors of Intel Xeon, and more powerful class of server processors from Intel.

So, one more set of processors of Intel for servers is presented by models of Intel Itanium. It has appeared in 2001 and used new 64-bit EPIC architecture (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing - parallel processing of commands with obvious parallelism). It is intended for the most exacting to computing resources of tasks. Further development has received in the bar of Intel Itanium 2 which first models have appeared in the summer of 2002.

Intel corporation has started the second decade of development of the server schedules from cardinal changes. The course on platformizatsiju solutions created by corporation (a Fig. 2) is taken.

Fig. 2. Platformizatsija solutions

Now the corporation will already give the main attention to frequency potential though also it will grow, and concrete solution of problems of potential users. The shift is dictated by permanently growing expenditures linked to overgrowth of clock rates on which processors work. And solution Intel corporation sees in implantation of the multinuclear architecture providing high rates of growth of productivity (a Fig. 3). Implantation of this architecture under corporation schedules will be carried out in all sectors of the computer market. As a result already to the end of 2006 85 % of delivered server processors of Intel will be multinuclear.

Fig. 3. Matching of rates of growth of productivity of one-nuclear and multinuclear processors

Systems of level of firm will find appropriate hardware support of the newest processing techniques of handle by a firm infrastructure. The processing technique of Intel Active Management Technology which allows IT managers to use controlling ON and resources of safety for remote diagnostics and troubleshooting, for example, concerns them. And also Intel Virtualization Technology allowing system to use of some operating systems and applications in an independent mode, Intel I\O Acceleration technology which accelerates data exchange between server-based applications and a network, and others. Two-nuclear and multinuclear processors of Intel become a basis of server platforms of the near future.

Development of server processors is presented in a Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Development of server processors

According to schedules after 90 nanometers the processor of the set of Intel Itanium under code name Tukwila will quit the two-nuclear processor of the set of Intel Itanium under the code name Montecito which deliveries should start in the end of current year. The platform under code name Richford will contain such two processors and will appear in the market in 2007. After Tukwila the processor of Intel Itanium of following generation under code name Poulson will follow.

The first two-nuclear 90-nanometers processors of Intel Xeon MP under code name Paxville will be presented in the first quarter 2006, and scale programs on allocation of samples of these processors to firms and software developers start already in the end of 2005. The processor will be a part of platform Truland grounded on a chip set of Intel 8500 (Twin Castle) which will appear simultaneously with the newest one-nuclear 90-nanometer the 64-bit processor of Intel Xeon MP (Potomac).

The platform under code name Reidland will be constructed on the basis of two kernels of 65-nanometer of processors of Intels Xeon MP known under code name Whitefield containing more. These multinuclear processors will be released in 2007.

The platform under the code name Bensley, intended for dual-processor servers of mass application, will appear in the first quarter 2006 and will be grounded on two-nuclear 65-nanometer the processor of Intel Xeon under code name Dempsey. Processors Dempsey will use also in efficient platforms for workstations under code name Glidewell.

In article open substances of corporation of Intel are used

Article is published in log the Computer the Price (Computer Price).

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