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Stagnation is cancelled

Evgenie Rudometov
authors@rudometov.com

In March, 2006 in capital of the American silicon valley in the next opens traditional IntelDeveloperForum (IDF) — the largest international Developer forum hardware and the software of products of computer branch

The fast development of semiconducting and computer processing techniques which are carried out in the conditions of the international integration, demands coordination of operation of experts of the different countries. It is promoted by the held Forums IDF aimed at direct dialogue of implementators hardware and the software with engineers of Intel and leaders of the industry. The involvement in operation of the given Forum provides a timely exchange of knowledge and carrying out of discussions in the field of the newest semiconducting and computer processing techniques.

A present series opens IDF in San Francisco (the USA, California), and will continue sessions in other countries, including Russia (Moscow, April).

Estimating value of Forum IDF, it is necessary to mark, that at its sessions many outstanding processing techniques and products have been announced. So, for example, on IDF such developments as the transportable version of the processor of Intel of Pentium II and the processor of Intel of Pentium MMX with low energopotrebleniem (1998), the platform of the processor of Intel Itanium and the architecture of Intel XScale (2000), transportable variants of processors of Intel of Pentium 4 (2001), etc. And still were processing techniques Gigabit Ethernet, Intel Centrino, Wi-Fi and numerous announcements of units and architectures for the first time have been sounded  . And it far do not weigh the list of revolutionary developments for the time, become already habitual to such degree, that many experts and will not recollect time and a place of announcements.

The enumerated products and processing techniques became major landmarks in history of development of computers. They have made the big impact on all branch of the high technologies which development is carried out according to Moore's known Law.

Fig. 1. Evolution of semiconducting units according to Moore's law

Parsing evolution stages it is necessary to mark, that is far not all announced developments were accepted by branch resignedly. It is enough to recollect memory modules Rambus and chip sets supporting them. Despite authority and technological power of corporation of Intel, the given developments have not found due popularity. They have been step-by-step curtailed and substituted by competing solutions on the basis of DDR SDRAM.

Some too optimistical forecasts of prompt growth of clock rates of processors were not justified also. According to these forecasts the next years clock rate of processors should exceed 10 GHz, and less than through ten years — and all of 30 GHz. Further it would be possible to calculate and for great values. And all seemed clear and transparent. However on this path the laws of physics operating in the field of a microcosmos to which thanks to lithograph scale already engineers today have closely come nearer have risen a barrier.

Development tehprotsessov

Year of implantation

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

Tehprotsess, nanometer

90

65

45

32

22

16

11

8

Possibilities tehprotsessa, billion transistors

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

256

According to these laws the heat release of such products would become monstrous: the energy density would exceed levels of a powerful nuclear reactor.

Having realised neperspektivnost a frequency method of overgrowth of computational capability of processors, the branch has taken new course on productivity rise on one watt. At next Forum IDF the president of corporation has told that Intel develops the microarchitecture of a new generation optimised from the point of view energopotreblenija. Production of Intel with low energopotrebleniem will allow to create a new category of multifunctional arrangements of home electronics.

Intel corporation will present new microarchitecture in second half of 2006. This microarchitecture will combine the best features of today's microarchitecture. In planned development the new functionality realised on a basis mnogojadernosti of processors also will be added.

Fig. 2. Development of microarchitecture of processors

In the autumn of 2005 during the report at Forum IDF Floor Otellini has shown for the first time gathered the new processors carrying code names Merom, Conroe and Woodcrest and intended for notebooks, desktop systems and servers accordingly. These processors are developed for release on the most advanced of 65 nanometers tehprotsessu Intel. The head of Intel also has informed, that for corporation is available more than 10 projects chetyrehjadernyh processors, and also processors with even considerable quantity of kernels on one chip. Otellini also has declared, that future production with low energopotrebleniem will allow to create a new category ultraenergosberegajushchih class arrangements Handtop the PC which will possess functionality of communication arrangements and computational capabilities of the PC, thus their power consumption will be less than one watt, and weight — less than 450 

One of perspective products is the new processor with code name Sossaman. This processor which is only one of many new solutions of Intel with lowered level energopotreblenija, is oriented to usage in the servers mounted in a rack, and servers with high density of allocation of components.

Escalating popularity of notebooks among businessmen and usual consumers speaks a considerable quantity of advantages which give transportable PCs. Preliminary announced on IDF, and recently and shown in tens new models of notebooks the transportable platform of Intel of following generation with code name Napa starts to restrict step-by-step platform Sonoma which in 2005 has similarly replaced platform Carmel. New platform Napa should help to reduce consumption of energy and to improve graphics possibilities, and also to expand possibilities of a wireless communication. But also for this newest transportable platform the successor is already declared. Platform Santa Rosa which appearance is planned for 2007 becomes them.

Evolution of transportable platforms

Year of release

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Platform

Carmel

Sonoma

Napa

Santa Rosa

Transportable chip sets

i855

i915

i945

-

The processor

Banias

Dothan

Dothan

Yonah

Merom

-

Kol-in kernels

1

1

1

1 / 2

2

2 / 4

That. Process, nanometer

130

90

90

65

65

65

As an example of innovative activity in the field of development of transportable processing techniques, on IDF by autumn of 2005 some characteristics of the future multinuclear processor for transportable arrangements under code name Merom which should appear in second half of 2006 have been opened. Within the next years the microarchitecture energosberegajushchego multinuclear processor Merom will help to raise three times productivity at the rate on 1 watt. This characteristic, according to experts of Intel, is the main requirement for near future arrangements.

The main condition of implementation of new ways of usage of processing techniques and supports of computational capability development of platforms on the basis of multinuclear processors with new microarchitecture of Intel. This microarchitecture personifies the following stage of evolution of processing techniques of Intel, banking in itself the best characteristics of architectures of Intel NetBurst and Intel of Pentium M and supplementing with their many refinements.

Rice 3. Development of processors of different sectors of the market

Rice 4. Samples of the set of multinuclear processors

To provide possibility of creation of more intellectual platforms and to help to satisfy requirements of people, Intel corporation plans to release the processors including tens and even hundreds of computing kernels with low energopotrebleniem in the future. Each such processor will support dynamic allocation of tasks on separate kernels or their sets. It allows to raise level energosberezhenija. The new processing technique consists in change of power supplies of a kernel of the processor for which by means of special hardware in idle time cycles fast saving of the information and complete obestochivanie is carried out. It will allow not only to save an electric power significant amount, to increase operation of portable systems, but also it is essential to lower thermal load on a chip of the processor and appropriate systems of cooling.

Besides, new architectural solutions provide dynamic reallocation of resources of memory and capacity of a network between concrete applications, such as systems of pattern recognition and sounds, the unit of support of safety of a network, game and the unit of the analysis of commands of users. All it will allow to expand possibilities of computer systems and to realise additional functions.

Fig. 5. From report Dzhastin Rattnera, the high deserved contributor of corporation of Intel and the head of division Corporate Technology Group

It is necessary to mark, that many declared innovations are already ready to implantation. So a number of the companies the newest solutions in the field of servers, desktop and transportable systems have already shown, a handheld computer, smart phones, mobile phones, etc . By the way, autumn of 2005 Intel corporation has slightly opened the schedules in the field of creation of new components of platforms of 2006 for mobile phones and wireless arrangements of following generation. Their structure will include processors of Intel XScale of following generation under code name Monahans. This set will allow to satisfy growing requirements of users of mobile phones, smart phones, a handheld computer and arrangements of home electronics. It is expected, that processor Monahans in some years can provide fivefold rise of productivity along with smaller consumption of energy in comparison with the previous platforms of Intel.

As to standalone power supplies their perspectives are not so optimistical though here again progress is available. Despite development of fuel units on the basis of oxidising metanola (methyl alcohol), recharged batteries continue to play a dominating role. On IDF 2005 engineers of Intel have shown the secondary generators providing on 30 % of more energy in comparison with traditional clones. A gain is received for the score bolshej density of the stored energy and deeper bit.

The enumerated examples prove absence of technological stagnation in branch about which so numerous critics like to speak. Moreover, the hard work of a considerable quantity of scientists and the engineers is available, as consolidating which force in many cases Intel corporation appears. As proof of it it is enough to familiarise with substances March IDF in San Francisco where with key reports leading experts and bosses of Intel will traditionally appear. Their performances will be devoted new microarchitecture, the digital house and firm, mobility, the newest processing techniques, opening and reachings.

But it already subjects of future articles.

To a meeting on American (in March) and Russian (in April) IDF.


Article is published in log Magic of the PC.

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