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The computer equipment future (the Part 2)

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Thanks to successes in the field of high technologies the mankind promptly passes from an industrial stage of development by an era mainly informational. Thus contrary to opinion of pessimists, already tens years of numerous limits predicting existence to scientific and technical progress, development of computer processing techniques proceeds. Computers become cheaper and more accessible, and their power and functionality promptly grow, that allows to use them practically in all spheres of human activity.


Wireless networks and Radio Free Intel

Now scientists and engineers give the big attention to development to products in which basis wireless processing techniques (wireless) are put. Implementators of Intel name it "Radio Free Intel". Here the main objective — to make radio resources so cheap and integrated, how much it in general is possible. And for reaching of this purpose already there is a number of the developed perspective processing techniques.

One of such perspective processing techniques — MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System — Microelectrical Mechanical Systems).

As a basis silicon uses. Considering and banking its mechanical properties with possibilities of new processing technique of lithograph, it is possible to create a considerable quantity of very interesting multifunctional arrangements. New arrangements can combine in themselves as mechanical units, for example, electromotors, the relay and switches, and electronic units and radio chains. To last, for example, the quartz resonators providing high stability of frequency of operation of analogue and digital generators, and also inductors without which any does not manage radio receiving and a radio sending device by the way, concern.

Processing technique MEMS allows to reduce essentially the size and cost of passive components: inductors, capacitors, quartz resonators, time delay lines, aerials, etc. These units are typical and necessary in high-frequency electrical chains of radio.

Implantation MeMs-tehologii allows to realise these units in uniform tank, allocating together digital and analogue parts. All it allows to create superminiature radio transmitters and radio receivers.

The arrangements created by means of MEMS-processing technique

By the way, it is necessary to remind, that the optics of the modern products, which operation is calculated for a visible band of a spectrum, created on the basis of glass. And glass, as is known, represents silicon oxide (SIO2), a substance actively used in modern chips for mutual isolation of their units.

By means of processing technique MEMS it is possible in a uniform cycle on a silicon wafer to grow up structures of monolithic microcircuits, mechanical parts of the arrangement, and even optical systems with necessary properties. Thus as mechanical arrangements it is possible to grow up the difficult constructions consisting and gears and electromotors. So on silicon bodies it is possible to create, for example, miniature photos and videocameras with all their electronic and mechanical parts, including rebuilt optics. Thus products can be so miniature, that a little from them will easily be located, for example, in a thimble together with their power supplies. Built in their structure of radio of a resource will allow to handle the information in computers, not resorting to the help of plugs and cables.

For wireless processing techniques there is a set of perspectives, set of standards and the application environments. One of directions over which experts of Intel work, roaming is. Users have possibility to be hooked up to a usual wire local area network (LAN), then to be disabled from it and to pass to a wireless network (wireless LAN) and then to fall outside the limits operation last and will switch to some global wireless network (global wireless LAN). The processing technique expanding standard concept of a network, based on concept transportable IP and its extensions is already developed. Implementators of Intel tried to create not simply some automatic transition from one network in another, and the integral completed system which covers all spheres to a regional wireless network. And, by the way, will include also such important things, as safety, VPN, etc. Thus, obviously, it is necessary to provide high-grade operation of applications (saving IP) on all path from one standard of a network in another, that can be made by means of silicon radio.

Considering processing technique of silicon radio, it is necessary to remind once again, that the modern products grounded on usage of radio-waves, are characterised by the big variety of units which did not manage to be created until recently forces of integration technology. By the way, as argument Patrick Gelsingera during the report on IDF has effectively divided a mobile phone, having thrown it into demonstration desktop, having shown its units to present computer experts and journalists, having accompanied appropriate remarks.

Really in modern radio arrangements the greatest place occupy not vysokointegrirovannye semiconductor chips, and passives: capacitors, resistors, spools, switches etc. And they prevented to reduce until recently the size of radio products as they could not be created resources of the integration technology underlying of production, say, of processors and chip sets. But the problem can be solved by means of processing technique MEMS.

As a result of the given integration it is possible to create the new desksize products of radio providing wireless interconnection of components of computer systems, including possibility of operation in networks. Considering that fact that it is necessary to switch between different networks it is a question of implementation at once several arrangements, for example, network, radio. And, certainly, it is expedient to bank all of them in one product (Silicon Radio), having provided support of their functions.

On immediate prospects the broad support of computer branch is received by standards of wireless communication Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11a. Thus Bluetooth basically uses for link of peripheral devices, standards EEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11a for interconnection of computers in a network.

Client card of standard IEEE 802.11a

Already there are ready developments in this direction. We will remind once again, that all is fulfilled only from silicon with traditional additives for support of necessary types of conductance and mechanical properties with usage of metal interconnectings and parts in a semiconductor chip. Bole that, at present already there are the arrangements steadily functioning on frequencies of 10 GHz and above.

Engineers of Intel have developed arrangements which are capable to switch automatically between networks for the purpose of reaching, for example, the greatest flexibility and high-speed performance at the least cost.

However implementators of Intel are gathered to embody the specified processing techniques and further, usage of high-frequency radio chains in difficult arrangements as it is made, for example, in mobile phones is rather than simple. It is planned, that in the near future practically each silicon chip will be completed with the built in radio resources. For example, the next years it there will be each chip set and the processor, and further radio will be in each unit and the arrangement. It also is implementation of concept Radio Free Intel.

It is linked, first of all to a problem of the wires accompanying practically each computer product. Really, with increase in quantity of arrangements for any user too many wires and cables round a workstation are stored. An abundance of the given interconnections outside and in tanks not only worsen an aesthetics of arrangements, it creates certain problems. Among these problems it is possible to name, for example, complexity of maintenance and often insufficient level of dependability. Internal cables worsen thermal modes of maintenance.

Radio is that is capable to reduce quantity of wires essentially. Besides, radio usage allows to raise level of mobility of computer arrangements and peripherals.

Simultaneously with implementation of the specified purposes the processing technique of a broad-band information transfer on a radio channel (UWB — Ultra-Widwband) is developed . It will allow to handle the big streams of the information and in due course will substitute traditional ways of interconnection of components, for example, interface USB popular already 2.0.


Considering advantages of radio, it is necessary to mark, that capacity of the given data link is limited by physical laws. In the same cases when there are high data flows, it is expedient to use optical processing techniques. In it the semiconducting photonics (Silicon Photonics) which purpose is retrieval of paths of usage of semiconductor electronic parts and standard solid-state technologies for creation of optical arrangements also is engaged.

Data transfer with a high speed can be carried out by means of lasers directly through the air environment or through volokonnoopticheskie communication circuits. High frequency of the electromagnetic oscillations making an essence of light, is pledge of high information capacity of such transmission mediums, as rayed light of the laser — a basis opticheschkoj communications.

Optical communications — Optical networks (Silicon Photonics) are arranged in the most common case as follows. First of all, the modulator of a signal the light source in which quality the semiconductor laser uses, and is necessary for signal sending. The optical filter and the diode is besides, necessary for signal reception. Such system should be customised on a certain wavelength. At such architecture it is rather possible to reach transfer rates in some tens gigabits a second. By the way, it depends not only on possibilities of units, but also distance.

The information transfer which is carried out by means of light, is carried out usually through the special fiber-optical cable characterised extremely high transparency in used band. The main advantage of such cable consists that now it is possible to handle light to very big distances, practically, without essential losses in power of a signal.

One more advantage of optical systems consists in possibility of transmission at once several (tens or even hundreds) signals with different lengths of waves through a unique fiber optic cable. This processing technique has received name Dense Wavelens Division Multiplexing (DWDM), that means multiplexing of the environment of data transfer, and is possible also appropriate converters, including optical systems, by means of usage of different lengths of waves handled and, of course, accepted emanation.

From the moment of appearance from the middle of 1990th years of first systems DWDM the quantity of data channels has increased several times. Now systems with number of channels more than 40 are frequent. Thus it is possible to handle to considerable distances on 10 Gbit/with on the channel. Development of this processing technique and improvement of parametres of units of optical system allows to reach in the long term transfer rates on one optical fiber of level billion bats a second! By the way, it exceeds all traffic of the Internet existing now.

Growth of capacity of an optical fiber

For implementation of this possibility as a part of such systems of data transfer the transceivers customised on certain waves of optical signals use.

Now basically the different lasers which emanation occurs on the certain, fixed frequencies use some.

To lower cost of transmission media of data, in systems of following generation application of the same lasers is provided. Change of their frequency of emanation is carried out individual customisation.

The resulted systems are rather difficult also roads that interferes with their wide implantation. Solution of these problems is multiplexing of the big number of accessories in one simple arrangement constructed on a small number of chips. It is possible thanks to the modern silicon and other reachings used in Silicon Photonics. In the long term — development and usage of the superminiature arrangements combining in all function on modulation, transmission, reception and information demodulation. Advantages of a similar method — simplicity of a construction, cheapness, and also, easy customisation, probably, even remote.

As the proof of possibility of implementation of the specified schedules resources of existing processing techniques, Patrick Gelsinger on IDF has presented samples of the newest arrangements. Now every possible arrangements of reception and transmission of optical signals which are much easier and in tens, and sometimes are developed and in thousand times is cheaper than the widely used clones.

Optical fiber — the most capacious environment of data transfer

On IDF in the course of the report the system from two such transmitters and receivers has been presented, and also the system adjustability is shown.

For this purpose it has been used specialised GUI. For few seconds the system has been customised. With existing arrangements it occupies much more time.

Wide usage of leading-edge technologies, including Radio Free Intels, Silicon Photonics, wireless LAN as its implementators calculate, radically will change a life. Even daily arrangements will gain the new value, new functionality.

Computers will start to inspect various home arrangements, will give possibility of automatic and automanual handle of them, including even the remote control, for example, from the car or office. The computer arrangements added with resources of the habitual interface, in a state to change a usual way of life, having made its more comfortable.

In the near future there is a reality a miniature mobile phone, the size no more a female ear ring. (By the way, according to leading experts of Intel, basic problems in it is not present. The unique obstacle is linked to a demand of similar arrangements as call with them should be absolutely other). And the radiomicrophone can be fulfilled, for example, in the form of a button. For such microphone not only the sizes, but also cost already in the nearest some years will not exceed the price of the specified unit of clothes.

Besides, there will be resources of the individual control over the health, carrying out continuous monitoring of key parametres of an organism. If necessary such resources will provide not only timely indication, but also link with medical institutions.

The purpose of the experts who are engaged in development of new processing techniques and products — in the near future to give all specified possibilities. And it not the next Utopia is already a reality. For pledge experience and authority of experts of leading computer corporations, and also indisputable successes of modern hi-tech processing techniques are that.

In article substances IDF, and also open documents of the corporation of Intel have been used.

It is published in log "the Express train Electronics"

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