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The processor with Hyper-Threading

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Article is grounded on substances of books "Arrangement of the multimedia computer" and "Motherboards and chip sets"

Developing possibilities of NetBurst architecture, Intel corporation has developed the new perspective processing technique Hyper-Threading providing processing by the processor of data in a multiprocessor mode. Supports of this processing technique it is carried out by models of processors, since declared Pentium 4 c an operating frequency of 3,06 GHz.

Despite unfavorable forecasts of numerous sceptics, the computer branch continues the prompt development, surprising numerous users new processing techniques and the products created on their basis. It would Seem still more recently the higher reaching the first microprocessor was considered invented as experts of the corporation of Intel. Known as i4004, he solved tasks with speed of 60 thousand operations in a second, worked on frequency 108 kgts, 10 microns have been created on processing technique, had 2300 transistors, was hooked up through a 4-bit wire and were capable to address 640 byte. And here several days ago, after 31 year after release of the first processor, the new flagman model of the processor which operating frequency already exceeds 3 GHz has been declared. This processor of NetBurst architecture is the most powerful representative of the bar of Pentium 4. It is created on processing technique 0,13 microns, has kernel Northwood, the cache memory of the second level (L2) 512 Kbytes, an operating frequency of 3,06 GHz, is calculated for operation in systems with the processor bus of 533 MHz (clock rate FSB of 133 MHz that provides a transmission frequency of the given 533 MHz) and oriented to the market of desktop computers (Desktop).

Being the most efficient model, this processor has personified all reachings of experts of Intel. These reachings in aggregate with the potential which has been put in pawn in NetBurst architecture, have allowed to reach so high clock rates of a kernel, and also buses of cache memory L2 and processor FSB.

But for anybody not a secret, that development of high-frequency products is extremely a challenge demanding the permission of numerous scientific and technical problems.

Really, still any two-three ten years ago such boundaries were considered inaccessible for a semiconductor engineering on the basis of silicon. Gigagertsevye frequencies were subject only to special instruments, type klistronov, magnetronov, etc .

And only and the architecture of chips frequencies and productivity of semiconducting products allowed to increase systematic perfection of electron technologies step-by-step.

But each following megacycle, and now and the gigacycle, is given all more difficultly, despite seeming simplicity and a regularity of appearance of new more and more high-frequency and more efficient models of processors.

However frequency growth is not a unique resource of rise of productivity. Experts permanently offer new paths and resources. Them of a steel, for example, implementation of new, additional commands and even groups the command of type MMX, SSE and SSE2. Another by is usage of numerous pipelines and even the several arithmetic-logic units realising simultaneous fulfilment of several commands.

All it together with growth of clock rates of a kernel and buses promoted considerable growth of productivity of processors.

The following, logical by development of the architecture of processors would become implementation as a part of one chip of several kernels that would allow to create the difficult systems executing the commands in a parallel way at level of several processors. Some large corporations which are engaged in development and release of processors are gathered to select this path.

However, not considering all complexities of this solution, it is necessary to recognise, that the given path carries on to substantial growth of the price of products, at least, on the price of the second kernel.

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