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Development of a domestic computer technology

Evgenie Rudometov

Razitie it is impossible for a world civilisation without information technologies. Domestic scientists and engineers have entered in history of development of a computer technology many nice pages. Their work and reachings deserve attentive and careful consideration.

The history does not know a subjunctive mood. Nevertheless, questions of possible evolution of a civilisation and its main reachings always were in sphere of attention of a society. Really, how maps if Aztecs knew a sprocket would vary? Or, for example, Napoleon would pay attention to the sentence of one of inventors to use possibilities of steam. And if Edison not only has patented a lamp with three electrodes and the effect of electron emission opened by it, but also has guessed to use the opening?

But all it concerns episodes already to rather far history. Many inventions and opening long time step-by-step transformed world around. Their value not always on advantage estimated even after hundred years. However there are scientific and technical products which have made huge impact on civilisation development practically right after the appearance. Electronic computers concern them.

The little more than 50 years have transited since there were first electronic computers (COMPUTER). For this short for development of a society the period some generations of the COMPUTER were replaced.

Developed originally only for the military purposes, electronic computers the subsequent years began to use practically in all spheres of human activity — from the most complicated defensive tasks and an industrial function before derivation, medicine and leisure. According to a wide band of application of computing circuits they differ complexity, element base and, of course, the price. Has started it was necessary rather primitive arrangements to the present measures, created on the basis of electron tubes in the middle of already last twentieth century.

In 1942 the American physicist John Mouchli has presented the own project of the computer — COMPUTER ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer — the electronic numerical integrator and the calculator). In the spring of 1945 this COMPUTER has been constructed, and in February, 1946 is declassified. COMPUTER ENIAC contained 178468 lamp triodes, 7200 crystalline diodes, 4100 magnetic units, occupied space in 300 sq. metres and in 1000 times exceeded on high-speed performance relay computers.

The electron tubes presented for the first COMPUTERS by diodes (a calefaction spiral, the cathode and the anode) and triodes (a calefaction spiral, the cathode, the anode and controlling electron flow, and consequently, and an anode current a grid) were element base of computers of this generation. The given computers intended for solution of rather simple scientific and technical tasks.

In a parallel way with development of element base and perfection shemotehnicheskih solutions development of basic scientific and technical concepts was carried out. So, in 1944 the American engineer John Ekkert has put forward for the first time the concept hranimoj in a program computer memory. And in 1946 John a background Neumann has offered a number of new ideas of the organisation of the COMPUTER. As a result of implementation of ideas Neumann's background the COMPUTER architecture has actually been created. This architecture in many features was saved till now.

However implementation of the newest concepts demanded appropriate technical solutions and, of course, element base. And such case was presented for implementators of the COMPUTER. It is linked to opening in the field of semiconductors. Employees Bell Telephone Laboratories John Bardin and Uolter Bremen on December, 23rd, 1947 for the first time have shown the invention which has received the name "transistor". And after some years the first attempts of development of the computing circuits created on the basis of these units have been undertaken. However lamps still long time continued to dominate as the main element base.

It is necessary to mark, that appearance of the new concepts underlying the architecture of computers, occurred on all path of perfection of the given arrangements. Developed both circuitry, and the software. On this path the world has learnt many nice names. However would be an error to link all reachings only to foreign experts. Our Fatherland does not remain away from global process of a computerisation of a world civilisation.

By the way, the substantiation of principles of construction of the COMPUTER with hranimoj in memory the program has been carried out by Sergey Aleksandrovichem Lebedev, irrespective of John Neumann's background.

In 1948 the collective, rukovodimyj S.A.Lebedev, has developed and has offered the first project of the domestic digital electronic computer. Further under the guidance of academician S.A.Lebedev and V.M.Glushkov domestic COMPUTERS are developed. At first it was MESM — a small electronic accounting machine (1951, Kiev), then computer — a high-speed electronic accounting machine (1952, Moscow). In a parallel way with them there was "Arrow", "Urals Mountains", "Minsk", "is distributed", "Nairi", a series "M". It is names of the computers created in the USSR only a few first from much tens.

And it is a lot of examples of implementation of reachings of domestic thought. Here only some marks of history of development of computers. This time semiconducting units became basic elements.

1959 - COMPUTER M-40 engineering samples, М-50 for systems of antimissile defence are created (ABOUT).

1959 - the release beginning in Minsk of COMPUTER "Minsk-1" which was applied basically to solution of engineering, scientific and designer tasks of mathematical and logical character.

1959 - the first lamp specialised stationary COMPUTER SPEKTR-4 intended for prompting of fighters-interceptors.

1959 - transportable semiconducting COMPUTER "COURSE" for processing of the radar-tracking information.

1960 - in the USSR first semiconducting controlling computer "Dnepr" is developed.

1960 - first microprogram specialised COMPUTER "Bowstring" for air defence system is created.

1961 - serial release Of COMPUTERS "is distributed" intended for solution of scientific and technical and engineering tasks, small productivity (speed of calculations - to 5 thousand operations in 1 seconds) is started.

1962 - the computer-4 COMPUTER.

1962 - in Severodonetsk scientific research institute of controlling computers it is created “МППИ-1”. It was applied in chemical, oil refining, metallurgical and other industries.

1962 - the set of the small digital electronic computers "Промiнь" intended for automation of engineering calculations of average complexity.

1962 - COMPUTER "Minsk-2".

1963 - multimachine computer complex "Minsk-222" is created.

1964 - the beginning of release of some the COMPUTER Urals Mountains.

1965 - computer-6 (High-speed electronically-accounting machine). It is the first in the USSR of the super-computer with productivity of 1 million op/second For all time (prior to the beginning of 80th) it has been constructed about 350 computers-6.

1965 - the release beginning in Kazan semiconducting COMPUTERS M-220 and М-222 with productivity to 200 thousand op/sek, COMPUTERS M-20 continuing a line.

1966 - development of the project of mainframe "Ukraine" which has anticipated many ideas of the American mainframes of 70th years is completed.

1969 — 5Э92Б - the dual-processor computer on digital semiconducting circuits, the main computer in the first system ABOUT Moscow.

Apparently from the resulted data, of course, incomplete, in the USSR the grandiose program on development, release and application of electronic computers has been carried out. Thus, as a rule, irrespective of the foreign colleagues domestic developments took root. And, of course, the most powerful COMPUTERS have been used for needs of defence, that, in general, has been justified.

It is necessary to underline, that quite often domestic COMPUTERS were in the lead on power. So, for example, in 1950 COMPUTER MESM which during that moment was the most high-speed in Europe have been created and tested.

Many original developments created by our experts, have found incarnation in domestic arrangements and on advantage have been estimated by foreign colleagues. As an example it is possible to result the COMPUTER of computer-6 created on transistors. In this COMPUTERS have been used the virtual storage and asynchronous pipeline structures. By the way, In 70th years M.A.Kartsev in the world has offered for the first time and realised the concept completely the parallel computing system with multisequencing at all four levels: programs, commands, data and words. These ideas have been embodied in COMPUTER M-10. And in 1978 has developed the project of vektorno-pipeline COMPUTER M-13 first in the USSR.

Further, in process of growth of requirements of a national economy, release of computers increased. Standardization attempt shemotehnicheskih solutions has been made. It was promoted to no small degree by successes of the domestic electronic industry which has mastered at first hybrid, and then and monolithic chips. In the further ambassador of the invention engineers of the corporation of Intel of the microprocessor had been adjusted release of similar units.

For this period for a basis of serial COMPUTERS the best samples of a foreign computer technology have been taken. For rather powerful models the bar of the COMPUTER of IBM — a series 360 and 370 has been taken. Accordingly, such COMPUTERS of uniform system (EU) have received the name "Ряд-1" and "Ряд-2".

Have not been forgotten and controlling computers. This class of small computers — COMPUTER SM has been created on the basis of the best samples of HP corporations and DEC.

1971 - the beginning of release of model of EU-1020 (20 thousand op/sek).

1973 - the beginning of release of model of EU-1030 (100 thousand op/sek).

1973 - with computer-6 usage the multimachine system with variable structure AS-6 for handle tasks space flights in the USSR has been created.

1973 - the beginning of release of the COMPUTER of EU-1050 (Moscow, Penza).

1973 - the beginning of release of the high-performance machine with mnogoformatnoj the vector RISC-architecture for systems of the warning of a rocket attack and the common observation of space М-10.

1974 - the beginning of release of model of EU-1022, (80 thousand op/sek).

1976 - the beginning of release of model of EU-1033 (200 thousand op/sek).

1975 - result of joint developments by experts of the USSR, NRB, VNR, PNR, CHSSR both GDR was creation and mini computer release - СМ-1, СМ-2, СМ-3 and СМ-4 with a wide band of applications: in scientific operations, for handle of a procedure, processing of experimental data in real time, for automation of engineering and administrative operations etc.

1977 - high model of system "Ряд-1" – EU-1060.

1977 - the beginning of release of model of EU-1035 ("Ряд-2").

1977 - creation of the first symmetric multiprocessor computer complex (MVK) "Elbrus-1" on the integrated microcircuit of average integration with resources of hardware support of the developed structurization of programs and data.

1978 - EU-1055.

1978 - the Beginning of release СМ-3 and СМ-4.

1978 - the Beginning of release UVK СМ-1 and СМ-2, compatible with М-6000/М-7000.

1979 - EU-1045 model (800 thousand op/sek, "Ряд-2").

1979 - the beginning of serial release high-powered multiprocessor UVK with the rebuilt structure PS 2000, realising multisequencing at level of tasks, branches, vector and scalar operations in tasks of geophysics, research experiments, etc. areas.

1980 - EU-1061 COMPUTER.

1980 - dual-processor СМ-1410 complex.

1981 - UVK SM 1800, SM 1803, SM 1804.

1982 - release of private computers (PEVM): in the USSR of EU-1840.

1983 - the beginning of release of EU-1036 – 400 thousand op/sek, "Ряд-3".

1983 - the release beginning in Zagorsk multiprocessor vector COMPUTER M-13.

1985 - the beginning of release of the electronic computer of EU-1066.

1985 - the beginning of release multiprocessor (10 processors) computer complex "Elbrus-2" productivity of 125 million op/sek (MIPS).

1985 - home computer "Electronics BK0010-01".

1986 - UVK SM 1810, SM 1814, SM 1820.

1986 - the SM 1700, compatible with VAX-11 Digital Equipment Corp corporations.

1986 - at factory VEM in Penza it is handled in production of the COMPUTER of EU 1766 (to 256 processors).

1994 - "Elbrus-3" - LSI, ECL the large-scale integrated circuit, 16 processors, high-speed performance twice above, than for CRAY-YMP, has been made, but in a series is not started.

Certainly, computer technology development with a stress on foreign samples has a little braked own developments. As a result of such operations operations on perfection, for example, computer bars — computer-8 and BESM-10 have been curtailed. It was possible to expect real break in this area. However the history, as is known, does not know a subjunctive mood.

Whether the path of development of the domestic computing resources, linked actually with copying of foreign samples is justified? Certainly, yes. As arguments it is possible to result, for example, the software and a problem of standardization of sites and units.

The software in the conditions of non-observance and absence of protection of copyrights in most cases is simple nesanktsionirovanno was duplicated without any payment of licence deductions. It allowed to save enormous financial assets. However, given copying doomed computer branches and the country to the backlog called by process of copying, translation and documentation release. And process of mastering and support without the necessary help was painful and long.

But as to the development of electronic industry accompanying process of copying of foreign experience, here all was quite optimistical. The domestic electronic industry has received quite explainable jerk. There were institutes and KB, factories were under construction, chips were released.

Nevertheless without domestic developments to manage it was impossible. To recollect problems of defensive departments enough. Possibly, to it that attention which was given to powerful multiprocessor complexes of type "М-10" and "Elbrus" also speaks.

— to duplicate the contribution to solution of the main problem of a manual foreign samples or to stimulate and create domestic computers — has brought also appearance of such phenomenon, as PEVM — personal electronic computers which began to name further as easier computers.

In short period in the USSR a number of products of this class has been released. As an example it is possible to result, for example, computers of series of EU, SM, "Spark". The first models of these series of a steel of EU-1040, СМ1810, "Искра-1030". The architecture of the given computers has been in many respects copied with corresponding zarudezhnyh products. First of all it concerns personal computers of IBM, the beginning which was put by the processor of the corporation of Intel i8086. Besides, the sector of computers of the architecture and DEC corporation command system actively developed. Computers of bars DVK and "Electronics" became the Most known products of this type. Considerably smaller distribution was received by the products created on the basis of samples of HP corporation.

The specified policy of copying of known architectures and command systems has allowed to borrow the rich software stored by foreign colleagues. Besides, for personal computers of the architecture and system DEC and HP there were appropriate mini computers, for example, СМ-3, СМ-4 and СМ-1, СМ-2.

But it is not necessary to think, that mastering of foreign experience of production and application of computers was reduced to simple unauthorized copying of the best samples of a computer technology and carrying over of programs. The matter is that, in a basis of domestic computers of a steel of a chip and microprocessors, commercially available in the USSR. It has been linked and to saving questions valjunyh resources, and state safety issues. It is linked by that in the conditions of an unfriendly surrounding the country did not presume to itself dependence on foreign sources of supply by the high technology accessories. It was impossible to dump about scores and danger of electronic bookmarks special services of potential opponents.

Certainly, far not all chips were own development. Used both domestic experience, and foreign. Research of microprocessors of known corporations has been adjusted. There was a KB where poslojno scanned chips of the microprocessor sets which results were handled experts, and further and to production workers. Certainly, not a secret that the appropriate channels of the investigation which has done huge operation have been involved also.

Besides, it is necessary to mark, that there were also industrial limitations. The matter is that in the country existed gosty, oriented to metric system. And as is known, in computer accessories use inch scale. This problem concerns not only tanks and cards, but also chips, including a travel of contact. So to the Soviet engineers even in the presence of samples prihodilost to project the products in a new fashion. It is necessary to add, that there was a limitation and on usage of precious metals that did not promote dependability of released engineering and negatively affected circulation of released products.

It is necessary to mark, that at rather big assortment of domestic personal computers their release to world measures was modest enough. So, for example, release of computer Iskra-1030 and its modifications made all some thousand pieces a year. The computer of a series of EU-1040 became more mass product. To one of the most mass and widespread computers became "Электроника-60". According to some information its release made approximately 10 thousand pieces a year. However, thanking kopjuterizatsii national education rather primitive computers of type "Electronics BK0010" and "Electronics BK0011" which has become by a basis of domestic educational classes КУВТ-86 and КУВТ-87, have been released tirazhem about some hundreds thousand. It was, certainly, success of the domestic industry. By the way, "Electronics BK0010" and "Electronics BK0011" became the first mass home computers that has allowed to join sacraments of computer science to millions citizens.

It is necessary to underline, that for conditions of the state support of the schedules providing copying of foreign experience, certainly, there were also domestic developments. Some ideas obviously overtook scientific thought of foreign experts. As examples it is possible to result the partitioned microprocessors and even RISK-processors. By the way, ideas of such processors have been in details formulated long before foreign publications. Moreover, in the late seventies there was a release project kopjuterov on the basis of the RISK-processors created on the basis of domestic developments, forces of one of foreign corporations. Thus this corporation took not only production of computers, but also the international marketing and implementation. However the project has encountered the numerous departmental negotiations which have occupied of some years. As a result time has been missed also the world has not seen implementation of the advanced development promising milliard incomes in a foreign currency to the budget of the country, and in the market less perfect foreign clones were established.

Thanks to successes of the semiconducting industry Their development of firmware PEVM in the world was carried out by so fast rates, that simply blind copying has quickly enough lost had no smysl.a as Bbez supports of domestic implementators the country has been doomed to constant and escalating backlog. As result of such backlog, suffered not only economy, but also safety of the state.

Solving a hard problem of development of electronic industry and a domestic computer technology and understanding of their value for country development, in the seventieth and eightieth years of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Ministerial council of the USSR have set the task of Academy of sciences to analyze a situation and to produce appropriate guidelines. The result of these efforts has been issued in the form of a number of the reports published in opened, accessible, though also specialised issuings.

The main sense of guidelines can be formulated in several positions.

So, to catch up and overtake the developed countries it is practically impossible, as for this purpose there will be no state resources. As to a policy of development step-by-step integration into process of world production with consecutive mastering at first rather simple ustrojstvizdely is represented to the most expedient, and then and step-by-step transition to technological difficult products. Thus it is necessary to consider foreign experience. Only with foreign colleagues it is possible to provide with joint efforts systematic razitie domestic and economic.

It also is the most rational strategy of development of domestic highly technological industries.

In article substances of some Internet sites have been used.

It is published in log "the Express train Electronics"

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