Spring IDF in San Francisco
The fast development of semiconducting and computer processing techniques which are carried out in the conditions of the international integration, demands coordination of operation of experts of the different countries. It is promoted by Developer forums IDF which spring series has opened IDFSpring 2004 in San Francisco (the USA, California).
The present stage of evolution of a civilisation is characterised by strengthening of a role of the high technology branches, such as informational, grounded on processing, accumulation and data storage by means of a various sort of computing circuits. Their basis now and on immediate prospects are semiconducting and computer processing techniques.
Development of these processing techniques is accompanied by an expenditure considerable financially-source of raw materials. Besides, this development demands high level maintenance in scientific and technical researches and the organisation of appropriate productions.
In the given processes which are carried out in the conditions of a hard competition, millions experts of many thousand corporations from the different countries are occupied. Without coordination of their efforts and planning of operations executable by them maintenance of high rates of development of the specified high technologies, release of perspective electronic and hardware-software solutions, and also their effective implantation in various spheres of human activity is impossible.
Led numerous scientific and technical schools, seminars, meetings and conferences are routed these purposes. Among such actions by one of the most known and authoritative the Forum for the implementators, carrying name IDF (Intel Developer Forum, further - Forum IDF or simply Forum) is become traditional.
Fig. 1. Emblem IDF
Forum IDF consists of a series of the international sessions led sequentially in the different countries of the world, characterised by high rates of development of IT processing techniques. It is necessary to remind, that already a number of years concerns their number also Russia. For this reason here, since 2002, autumn sessions of the Forum began to be led. The place of these actions had been selected Moscow, however current year in Russia is planned to lead sessions IDF already twice and already in two cities: in the spring — in Novosibirsk (on May, 17th), and in the autumn, roughly October, — in Moscow.
Estimating value of these actions, it is necessary to remind, that IDF is the largest action for implementators of hardware and the software. Forum IDF gathers leading representatives of a science and engineering for consideration of the various questions linked to the advanced computer processing techniques and production of electronic branches, intended for personal computers, servers, the communication equipment, and also a wide spectrum of notebooks and pocket computing circuits.
At Forum sessions rates of development of the specified branches are parsed, problems are considered, the newest processing techniques and the products released not only the main organizer – Intel corporation, but also other companies are announced. For this reason one of leading heads of corporation of Intel on one of sessions has suggested to decrypt IDF as Industry Developer Forum.
The next Forum for implementators – IDF Spring 2004 has taken place recently in San Francisco (the USA, California) — centre of Silicon Valley.
This Forum has opened a spring series of 2004 and has been devoted actual problems of branch at a stage of its output from crisis, and also to perspective semiconducting and computer processing techniques. For operation in the Forum known scientists and engineers, and also representatives of the most popular mass media from the different countries of the world, including Russia have been invited about five thousand participants among which there were the authoritative businessmen.
From traditional electronics to photonics
On the eve of the Forum even before official opening IDF Spring 2004 for the invited journalists in one of hotel The Argent Hotel halls, become place of allocation of participants of the Forum, had been led the special press briefing led.
During the given action experts of Intel have told about a number of perspective research operations, announced the newest processing techniques and samples of some products have shown.
One of the presented directions which are of great importance for further development of IT branches of the modern industry, the silicon photonics is. The briefing devoted to the given subject, Dr. Kevin of Cannes (Dr has led. Kevin Kahl, Intel Senior Fellow, Director Communications Technology Lab, Corporate Technology Group, Intel Corporation) and Dr. Mario Panichchia (Dr. Mario Paniccia, Director Photonics Research Lab, Corporate Technology Group, Intel Corporation)
Perspectivity of researches consists that light as the transmission medium possesses very high information capacity. It popularity among implementators and users of the fiber-optical communication circuits promptly superseding traditional copper wires in systems of wire data transfer speaks. Besides, unlike electrical light signals are not subject to the deformations called by effect electrical and magnetic fields. Thanks to it high noninterference and confidentiality of the information handled on light-guides which sizes promptly increase according to increase in quantity of computers and growth of their power is provided. As a result of it requirements to a pass-band of systems of processing and data transfer steadily raise.
The increase in productivity of the electronic parts which are a basis of all modern computers, is carried out at the expense of perfection of the internal architecture of chips and growth of their clock rates provided thanks to development of solid-state technologies and reduction of the sizes of transistors. However speed of data processing exceeds rate of an exchange of results of calculations between active components of computing systems more and more. It is linked to the limited possibilities of existing communication circuits. According to the international association of manufacturers of semiconductors Sematech, the limit of development of processing techniques with metal explorers will occur already after 2008, the unique alternative is usage of optical processing techniques and appropriate high-powered photoelectronic instruments.
For solution of the given problem operations in the field of creation of photoelectronic instruments all over the world are carried on. In the market it is possible to find set of such products: from become traditional the fiber lines, appropriate connectors and photo-electric converters to a wide spectrum of commutators, modulators, amplifiers, etc.
At the heart of their operation various actinoelectricities, and also a number of processing techniques MEMS providing, for example, mechanical ways of modulation and switching of light streams lay. However products used till now are calculated for the frequencies which values mismatch high-speed level of modern monolithic microcircuits. These chips make an electronic surrounding of optical products which, as a rule, represent until recently separate arrangements. These arrangements form, as a rule, on the basis of quartz or ftoridnogo the glass alloyed by various rare-earth units, and also rather difficult and expensive semiconductive materials, type of gallium arsenide or the indium phosphide demanding appropriate processing techniques and the equipment.
Reaching of contributors of corporation of Intel is that they have created the optical arrangement fulfilled, as well as classical chips, on the basis of silicon processing techniques. The fast modulator of a light stream became this arrangement. There was a real possibility to provide a high-speed and nonjammable information transfer as between computers, their accessories and chips, and between separate sites in chips, reducing the common electromagnetic load on these sites.
At the heart of operation of the presented variant of the modulator that fact lays, that contributors of corporation of Intel managed to divide light of the miniature laser into two identical rays, and then, having skipped one of them through the semiconductor structure similar to the silicon transistor to effect it a variable electric charge.
Fig. 2. Structure of a semiconducting modulating unit
As a result of it the ray which has undergone to processing appears promodulated on a phase. At interconnection of both rays taking into account translation of their phases the sequence of light pulses is derivated. Thus, in created Intel to a chip modulation of a light stream is carried out at the expense of effect of an interference of two rays of light which phases or coincide (is handled "unit"), or are in phase opposition ("zero" is handled).
Fig. 3. Modulating of a light stream
Now contributors of Intel managed to create the high-speed modulator which frequency makes 1 GHz., At least, in 50 times faster, than till now it was possible to reach it in similar systems by means of traditional methods and resources. And experts of Intel assert, that the reached value the next years can be overlapped, at least, ten times. It will allow to create nonjammable high-speed communication circuits on the basis of reachings of silicon photonics. Besides, results of researches of experts of Intel will find application in the architecture of computers, arrangements of an information storage and systems of optical handle.
Coming back to the led briefing for representatives of the press, it is necessary to mark, that despite sensational nature of reachings of silicon photonics, they do not settle subjects of the taken place performances of experts of corporation of Intel.
IT culture and processing techniques
One of such subjects has been devoted studying of influence of computer processing techniques and products on cultures of the different people and the countries. Some results of research of experience of implantation and usage of new IT processing techniques in the different countries, and also the inevitable difficulties arising on this path linked to features of cultures, customs, religions, have been presented by doctor Zhenevievoj Bell (Genevieve Bell, Intel Research Corporate Technology Group). The registration of all features of ethnoses allows to reach a maximum positive effect for culture and economy from implantation of the newest processing techniques and products, as in industry and agriculture sphere, and derivations, medicine, and, of course, a life. It allows to speak about appearance of a new layer of culture — IT cultures.
Considering changes occurring under the influence of computer processing techniques in a life, with this subject the project «Digital house» is intersected. It is the project developed by corporation of Intel already within several years and repeatedly represented at different sessions IDF, has the purpose to expand functionality of the modern computer and used interfaces to more high level. Implementation of these schedules will allow in immediate prospects to powerful computers of the future, supplied with sensors and adaptive resources of a computer human interface to incur protection of the house, health, care of children and users of old age. However already today the modern computer fast becomes centre of entertainment, link, training and outwork. Already today it is capable to substitute traditional audio and the videorecorder, well and is finite, the TV.
Estimating possibilities of usage of the modern computer as the given multicentre, it is necessary to mark, that Intel corporation pays the big attention to the extension of its video functions. About importance of this direction says at least that fact, that the person to 90 % of the information on world around perceives by means of sight. It popularity of TVs and house cinemas also speaks.
For implementations of these arrangements by computer resources, except the powerful computing and multimedia possibilities given by modern high-powered processors, chip sets both other units and the sites entering into the architecture of modern computers, appropriate high-quality resources of mapping of a video information are required. Alternatively big plasma and to LCD-monitors Intel corporation offers the solution in which basis the original processing technique which has received the name code name Cayley lays, is constructed on method LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon).
This development has led to creation on the basis of solid-state technologies of Intel of miniature displays of a high-resolution and the big brightness. The presented variant of the LCOS-microdisplay has the size of 0,8 inches and represent the layer of liquid crystals placed between a glass slice and a mirror semiconducting surface with high mirroring properties on which all control diagramme in pixels is taken out. This solution accepting usage from one to several displays, allows to create high-quality projective screens of TVs and compact projectors for a house cinema. But they can be used and as resources of mapping of the information of computer systems.
Advantage of a construction of the display is correspondence to the solid-state technologies used by corporation of Intel in production of the chips. It allows to save competitive prices and to increase the permission according to the forecast given by the law of Moore, in process of evolution tehprotsessov and decreases of the sizes of units.
Fig. 4. The LCOS-microdisplay
Intel corporation plans to adjust mass release of microdisplays on the basis of processing technique Cayley within 2004.
Consideration of perspective computer processing techniques and demonstrating of the newest izdelej, started at a press briefing, have been continued in key reports of the Developer forum which all actions transited at centre Moscone West Center. By the settled tradition these main reports have been made by bosses of corporation of Intel.
Growth of economy and processing techniques
A series of key reports has opened Krejga Barrett's performance, the main chief executive of corporation of Intel (Craig Barrett, Chief Executive Officer). He has confirmed, that on all metrics the deepest crisis in history of existence of computer branch was completed. By the way, it predicted the fast termination of crisis on one of Forums IDF two years ago, reminding, that all crises have one important feature: they are ended sooner or later. Also it is necessary to use this period for carrying out reorganizatsionnyh operations, not reducing rates of research and development operations. Now to all tags crisis was completed, and in priority there were those corporations which even in the conditions of recession did not stop the researches as it was made by Intel corporation. As a result it continues to develop the processing techniques and to realise earlier planned schedules.
Fig. 5. Krejg Barrett, CEO Intel corporations appears
In the performance Krejg Barrett has stated the vision of how distribution of digital processing techniques and proceeding technological progress are capable to transform commercial activity, entertainments and link all over the world.
Once again Krejg Barrett has paid attention present on an expedition of convergence of computer and communication processing techniques and a role which is played by Intel corporation in developments of wireless specifications and processing techniques, such as IEEE802.11, USB (Ultra Wideband with a pass-band to 0,5 Gbit/c) etc. Usage of wireless processing techniques and of some perspective processing techniques in a state to change existing developments in a state to change a life and habitual products. The program «Digital house» is routed this purpose. During the report the videosystems using the arrangements with processing technique LCOS and multi-channel processing of a sound have been shown.
Giving it is a lot of attention to household purpose products, does not leave Intel the attention and server sector, topovymi which solutions are systems on the basis of processors of Intel Itanium 2. In 2003 by Intel corporation it has been sold more than 100 thousand processors of Itanium set. Once again Krejg Barrett has underlined, that in connection with observed growth in the branches linked to high technologies, favorable conditions for investments now are added. Mass expansion of systems on the basis of processors of Intel Itanium 2 in many corporations of the world, including the largest financial and trading companies has as a result started.
According to the head of corporation of Intel results of convergence and development of processing techniques already in the near future will lead to that techniques and the processing techniques applied today for entertainment, will use in such areas, as the public health services, natural sciences, gene engineering and new forms of computer applications. He has told about operations in the field of perspective processing techniques, which the newest concern well-known Hyper-Threading and Intel Centrino, and also LaGrande (rise of safety of calculations) and Vanderpool (rise of dependability, flexibility and high-speed performance).
From other advanced development CEO Intel has marked planned support of 64-bit instructions by 32-bit processors. This architecture has received the name processing technique IA32e.
Speaking rather this architecture, Krejg Barrett has underlined, that while it is a question only of the market of servers and workstations. And this processing technique in the given sector will be already realised in 2004 by the application Object there are following generations of server processors of Intel Xeon. Further in process of the extension of the software market oriented to 64-bit calculations and presented by appropriate variants of operating systems and applications, the given support will appear and in processors of computers of desktop level.
It is necessary to mark, as Krejg Barrett, both the subsequent lecturers, and the experts participating in numerous open desktops, is multiple underlined, that IA32e architecture providing implementation of 64-bit commands, is not copying of already existing AMD architectures. Moreover, it was repeatedly underlined, that the command system is not the property of the given corporation-competitor. Besides, architectures of the processors presented by both manufacturers, are different and have the features. These features will find appropriate incarnation both in 32, and in 64-bit instruction sets. Approximately how it has been made in MMX, SSE, etc. However compatibility will be present at many commands, however will be, bessomnenija, and differences. Differences in products from Intel and AMD will be linked basically to the different architectures, different approaches to engineering of the processors, different processing techniques. As an example it is possible to result processing techniques Hyper-Threading and SSE3, realised in production of Intel and absent for the competitor. At the same time in processors AMD use a number of own developments, for example, 3DNow!, not having clones in Intel products
Intel corporation as it was underlined repeatedly by Krejg Barrett, puts considerable resources in development of the processing techniques oriented not only on current requirements, but also on perspective.
As an example of perspective researches, the head of Intel has resulted the operations linked to construction of intellectual systems. One of such developments has been announced in a number of the last press releases of Intel.
Fig. 6. The car with the standalone computer system of autocontrol
It is a question of completely standalone autocontrol of cars realised on the basis of several computers with processors of Intel Itanium 2 and Intel Xeon. About complexity of the task says that fact, that on the off-road car presented during the report "Hammer" the computer on the basis of four processors of Intel Itanium 2, added with four systems is installed, each of which is fulfilled on two processors of Intel Xeon. High efficiency in calculations is necessary because the involvement in a driving of the person is not provided. The Hardware-software complex should fulfil independently manoeuvres, calculating course by means of GPS (satellite system of global positioning) and reading out data from numerous sensor controls of environing space, fulfilling on the basis of the built in sensors frequent operations of selfdiagnosis. Thus on separate sites speed of movement makes to 100 km/hour that is unavailable to earlier offered solutions.
But except the bright, arrogant projects routed to the future there were also the developments intended for implementation already today and one of them is the concept «Digital house».
The digital house
To the given subject Lui Burns's report, vitse-prezidenta is devoted corporation of Intel and the general manager of division Desktop Platforms Group (Louis Burns, Vice President, General Manager, Desktop Platforms Group).
Fig. 7. Lui Burns, vitse-prezident corporations of Intel and general the manager of division Desktop Platforms Group appears
At the heart of the concept «Digital house» the generalised concept of information processing lays. The information is understood as games, audio and video data, including the television programs given on optical disks, etc. The information should be stored, handled and be stored non-limiting time by computer resources. In the long term not only content playback, but also handle of household appliances, dwelling and health protection
Unification of the platforms, computer occurring junction computer, communication and home electronics, first of all, is necessary for concept implementation «the Digital house» according to experts of corporation of Intel. The home arrangements created as a result of such junction should provide:
· maximum convenience of usage of arrangements, ready-to-use right after unpackings,
· interaction without usage of wires with a minimum quantity of remote controls,
· delivery of a content with excellence of audio-and a video information.
Intel corporation in cooperation with other corporations develops a construction of the unified platform for the digital house. The platform which has received name Kessler became one of results. This arrangement created on the basis of the computer and controlled by means of a remote control, incorporates TV-tuner, a DVD-player and the personal digital inscriber (PVR). Other variant is created by corporation of Intel the prototype of standard platform Sandow. This development planned to release in 2005 , except named, supports a number of additional possibilities, for example, such as performance of high-quality videorecording in format HDTV.
The presented unified platforms are calculated for usage of processors of Intel of Pentium 4 (Prescott), and the chipset preparing for release with name Grantsdale. This set in a variant intended for mass usage, bude to include the built in graphics kernel supporting video of a high-resolution with possibility of mapping on two independent screen monitors. Besides, in platforms application of the built in point of wireless access, dynamic storage DDR2, maps in standard PCI Express, audioresources of the specification of Intel High Definition Audio (early name Azalia), jointly developed corporation of Intel and Dolby Laboratories is provided. Data audosredstva allow to realise multi-channel sound Dolby 7.1 Surround Sound. As the kernel system usage of OS of Windows XP Media Center Edition is provided.
For the extension of cooperation within the limits of the concept «Digital house» and engaging of new corporations in given prekt Intel corporation carries out investments into the companies developing equipment rooms and software. It is carried out through special fund of Intel Digital Home Fund with the budget of 200 million dollars.
Carrying out the projects, intended to change the house and a life of people, Intel corporation continues to expand the presence and at server sector.
Digital office, server and transportable processing techniques
For corporate users Intel corporation realises the concept of digital office and continues to develop the server processing techniques linked to the bar of high-powered processors of Intel Itanium2, and also popular among experts small and moderate-sized firms of processors of Intel Xeon.
These schedules have been sounded by Bill Sju, the vice-president and the general manager of division of Intel Desktop Platforms Group (William Siu, Vice President General Manager, Desktop Platforms Group) and Michael Fisterom, the high vice-president and the general manager of division of Intel Enterprise Platforms Group (Michael Fister, Senior Vice President General Manager, Enterprise Platforms Group).
Fig. 8. Michael Fister, the high vice-president and the general manager of division of Intel Enterprise Platforms Group appears
Developed by corporation of Intel the concept of "digital office» urged to raise productivity, flexibility, security and controllability of an IT infrastructure, and in necessary cases to provide mobility of employees.
Basis of digital office are the personal computers created on the basis of processors of Intel of Pentium 4 (kernel Prescott) with support of processing technique Hyper-Threading and chipsets of Intel of a new generation which concern Grantsdale and Alderwood. And after appearance of processors with two system kernels it will be possible to create on these units.
For high efficiency systems the new form factors, giving possibility of usage in desktop computers of new, high-frequency units of a high-scale of the integration, demanding corresponding power supplies and cooling are created. Intel corporation plans to enter the new specification BTX, called to substitute well-known standard ATX both defining the sizes of system boards and component layout on them.
In the field of safety Intel corporation plans to develop and realise new processing technique of memory protection NX (“No Execute” i.e. "not to fulfil" at approach of certain conditions), and also the processing techniques known under code names processing technique LaGrande (LT) and processing technique Vanderpool (VT).
In sector of high-powered 64-bit processors of the higher group Intel corporation will continue perfection server процесcоров Intel Itanium 2 which, by the way, it has been put in 2003 to manufacturers of high-powered systems more than 100 thousand pieces. Models for multiprocessor (models MP) servers with clock rates 1,3, 1,4 and 1,5 GHz with accordingly cache memory of the third level 3, 4, 6 Mb will be enlarged current year by model with kernel Madison with clock rate of 1,7 GHz and size of the cache memory of the third level of 9 Mb. Further, in 2005, there will be two-nuclear model Montecito with a cache memory of 24 Mb which then will replace multinuclear Tukwila.
From interesting features of the architecture it is necessary to mark, that in models with kernel Montecito new processing techniques will be realised. It, for example, Pellston — rise of dependability of operation of the cache memory and Foxton — increase in productivity of the processor at high working load.
Will find continuation and other bars of processors, for example, Intels Itanium 2 oriented to high-powered dual-processor systems (models DP, kernels Fanwood, Millington, Dimona), and also the economic variants calculated for low-tension power supplies (models LV), constructed on the same kernels.
Bars of models of Intel Xeon, calculated on multiprocessor (MP) and dual-processor (DP) systems will not be forgotten also.
During the report Michael Fister has presented the new processor of Intel Xeon DP of 3,2 GHz with the cache memory in size of 2 Mb. The processor constructed on the basis of kernel Nocona (90 nanometers) will be the following . Low model – 3,6 GHz, 1 Mb of the cache memory, the system bus of 800 MHz. It will be the first processor with support of 64-bit commands.
Novelties of the market of transportable computers were sounded by Anand Chandraseher, the vice-president and the general manager of division of Intel Mobile Platforms Group (Anand Chandrasekher, President and General Manager, Mobile Platforms Group) and SHona Melouni, the executive vice-president of corporation of Intel (Sean Maloney, Executive Vice President
General Manager, Intel Communications Group). From reports it is necessary to expect appearance in the near future of several models of the processor of Intel of Pentium M with kernel Dothan, 90 nanometers fulfilled on processing technique and 2 Mb possessing a cache memory and calculated for frequency of the system bus of 533 MHz. New platform Sonoma is developed for this processor. This platfora provides usage of a new chip set (Alviso) with support of two-channel memory DDR2 in size to 2 Gbytes, the built in graphics controller of a third generation, Serial ATA, new interface Wi-Fi (802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g), etc. will gain further distribution and solutions on the basis of processors for a handheld computer (PDA). Intel corporation is gathered and further to develop their architecture on the basis of the newest solid-state technologies.
Evolution of these processing techniques and the main tendencies in the field of perfection of the architecture of processors became consideration objects in the report and on «round desktop» Patrick Gelsingera, the vice-president and the executive director on processing techniques of Intel (Patrick Gelsinger, Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer).
Fig. 9. Patrick Gelsinger, the vice-president and the executive director on processing techniques of Intel appears
He has told about history of development of solid-state technologies and the architecture of processors in the conditions of reduction of the sizes of the units making a basis of chips, and also has formulated main objectives and tasks of the future systems troubleshooting processings promptly increasing, as well as complexity of processors, under Moore's law of information contents. Considering, that these sizes in the large organisations already quite often make terabytes, Patrick Gelsinger characterised our time as “Ayr of Terabytes”. The computers constructed with the registration not only growth of frequency are necessary For processing of such sizes, but also the new architectural innovations raising productivity and expanding functionality.
Future computers should:
· to recognise templates and data models,
· to retrieve for the information corresponding to these templates
· to parse/synthesize the big data sets.
For this purpose the new accessories possessing the big resources are required. For example, processors will soon incorporate a little dynamically controlled kernels, and each of them will consist of many billions transistors. Memory sizes will increase. Wireless processing techniques, such as UWB, will solve problems of numerous cables. Appropriate system and applications, and also the special built in resources will effectively control resources.
On this path there will be many technological difficulties, such as a considerable leakage current and a high heat release at reduction of scale of lithograph and growth of number of transistors by semiconducting crystals, but one of avtoritetnejshih heads of Intel is convinced, that all of them will be successfully solved.
The limited size of article, does not allow to tell about all events and innovations of Developer forum IDF Spring 2004. However, considering their value for branch development, major of them will find reflexion in future articles.
Article is published in log Byte (http://www.bytemag.ru).