Development of semiconducting and computer processing techniques, development of new microarchitecture and release of multinuclear processors promoted development of different sectors of the computer market
Revolution about which so experts long spoke, has occurred. Has occurred fast and to some extent unexpectedly. Clock rate has ceased to be unique criterion of perfection of processors. To this important parametre were added number of kernels and energoekonomichnost. And as manufacturers of the processors warn, the given metrics will grow rather fast. And it is real, emotions concerning release of the first dvuhjadernyh products had not time to cease, and Intel company has already presented the first chetyrehjadernye to model. It allows to speak about new edition of the law of Moore operating with not so separate units, and the whole systems placed in the common tank of the chip. But the known law – not a unique consequence of development of processing techniques and implementation mnogojadernosti. Respective alterations have concerned all computer branch.
Many innovations have been announced on the past rather recently in San Francisco IDF (Intel Developer Forum). The information sounded at this Forum, will excite still for a long time the public as gives reference points to development of all computer branch. For this reason it is expedient to remind and generalise some facts sounded by leading experts, including the president and the main chief executive of Intel of Floor Otellini (Paul S. Otellini), the high deserved engineer-contributor of Intel, the head of division Corporate Technology Group and the executive director of Intel on processing techniques Dzhastina Rattnera (Justin R. Rattner), and also of some vice-presidents of corporation of Intel.
In reports it has been underlined, that a basis of all reachings — the processing techniques which development is the paramount task. Existing process with scale 65 nanometers next year will start to be superseded 45 nanometers tehprotsessom (the sum of investments $9 billion ). Intel corporations 15 new models of processors for desktop, transportable and server sectors are prepared. dvuhjadernye models of Intel of Pentium D and Intels Core promptly replacing them 2 Duo (for the first 60 days it has been sold more than 5 million processors) will receive the development in 4-nuclear products which release became a reality thanks to led researches, to development of nuclear microarchitecture and semiconducting tehprotsessov.
On IDF progress in technologists of the "expanded" silicon has been marked. As is known, the current generation has provided almost 30 % of productivity and fivefold lowering of a current in comparison with the previous 90 nanometers generation, and (45 nanometers) will provide the third to 20 percent of a gain of productivity and lowering of a leakage current to five times in comparison with existing 65 nanometers.
Progress in processing techniques and advanced design will provide further growth of productivity and lowering energopotreblenija. Predictably, transition from existing processor microarchitecture of Intel Core (2006 ) embodied in processors of the bar of Intel Core 2 Duo, to future Nehalem (2008 ) and Gesher (2010 ) will lead to growth of a metric of productivity on watt more than in 3 times.
Photo 1. Microarchitecture evolution
The given considerable progress will be reached thanks to accurate sequence of the operations providing the two-year-old period in development semiconducting tehprotsessov and microarchitecture. So existing IntelCore, debugged on 65 nanometer and realised in transportable kernel Merom, desktop Conroe and server Woodcrest, it will be translated to 45 nanometers. Only after that transition to following generation of processor microarchitecture for which implementation are provided tehprotsessy 45 and 32 nanometers, etc. will be carried out . It will provide eligibility, stability and necessary rate of the progress new server, desktop and transportable systems will be which result.
In 2007 transportable platform Santa Rosa which realises following generation Centrino will be issued. In the given platform will be applied a transportable variant dvuhjadernogo Intel Core 2 Duo (Merom), supported by an appropriate chip set, the unit of faster wireless communication supporting specification IEEE802.11n (five times faster IEEE802.11g — nearby 300 Mbit/c), NAND the flash-memory. Advanced design in the field of safety and handle, and also following generation of the built in drawing will use. The specified resources urged to increase productivity at low energopotreblenii and it is essential to expand functionality of a notebook. Often used information should be stored in the flash-memory unit that will reduce loadtime of programs and data and will reduce number of calls to a hard disk drive (processing technique Robson). The given processing technique in addition will reduce energopotreblenie and will increase offline work time.
By the way, offline work time becomes extremely important parametre among transportable arrangements which computers UMPC representing supercompact computers concern. They on weight and dimensions occupy intermediate position between notebooks and a handheld computer. Their architecture provides usage of ULV-models of processors of Intel of Pentium M/Celeron M that provides a software compatibility with traditional computers. However first variants UPMC did not provide comprehensible levels of the price and offline work time. To improve the given metrics the processor with code name Steeley which will be already released next year will allow. It energopotreblenie on matching c by existing Intel of Pentium M ULV it will be lowered twice, and in 2008 — ten times.
As it is supposed, further complexity of the processor will be raised at the expense of integration of units which are fulfilled now separately. It will allow to reduce the prices of models UMPC to level $500-700 in 2008. It is necessary to add, that UMPC will incorporate various resources of wireless data transfer, that together with the low price will allow the given arrangements to press High End a handheld computer. Further multinuclear structures will appear and in this sort of computers. As to arrangements Low End for this sector also appropriate inexpensive models in due course will be created. They will differ from the high prototypes a smaller set of units and functionality.
In present time for a role of the computer of initial level the arrangement created for derivation, as alternative to known project OLPC (One Laptop Per Child, «to Each child on a notebook») can apply . The prototype of the arrangement from Intel, received name Classmate PC, has been shown by the president Hollow Ottelini (a photo 2).
Photo 2. The president of Intel shows Floor Ottelini Classmate PC
Architecture basis are the processor of Intel Celeron M and a chip set 915GMS, memory is presented by 256 units of Mb DDR2 and 1 Gbyte the flesh-unit (instead of HDD), the Zhk-display with the permission 800х480, the secondary generator — lithium-ionic, the operating system — the reduced version of Windows, a guiding price — $400. The given project is considered completed, mass production is planned to develop in the beginning of 2007 Further reduction of price and-or the extension of functionality thanks to development of processing techniques and advanced design is not eliminated.
It is necessary to mark, that in Intel corporation special attention is given to advanced development always. Sometimes so revoljutsionny, that in their implementation it is difficult to believe announced schedules. For this reason it is frequent enough in reports there were demonstratings. A part from them concerned the server solutions which basis is made by multinuclear processors of Intel Itanium and Xeon. So, for example, this summer of Intel of the beginnings of sale dvuhjadernyh Intel Xeon 5200, and at the moment of IDF it has been sold about 1 million processors. Units and the processing techniques which mass implantation is expected in some years are not less interesting. So as an example in many respects unexpected event it is possible to result vosmidesjatijadernyj the processor (the Photo 3).
Photo 3. The president of Intel Floor Ottelini shows a slice with chips of 80-nuclear processors
Clock rate of the 80-nuclear processor — 3,1 GHz. Total productivity of such supercomputer realised on one chip, makes 1 ТFLOP (1 teraflop — 1 000 000 000 000 floating-point operations). So big productivity demands an appropriate surrounding. For example, it is offered to combine such kernels with the memory cells allocated in immediate proximity from them. As an example, under kernels — on 256 Mb SRAM on each kernel. It will provide a data transfer high speed. For link with other units of system lines with adequate capacity are required. Wires here do not suit any more. Light can apply for this role, optical lasers are more exact. On previous IDF contributors of corporation of Intel already showed perspective optical units. Then it were amplifiers, modulators, commutators and mixers. All this diversity of optical units could be integrated into structure of the uniform semiconducting crystal which basis was made by silicon. However the laser was either external, or hybrid. Ready integral multi-channel solution which, by the way, had capacity 1 Tbit/with has been this time shown .
It is necessary to add, that, despite sensational nature of the 80-nuclear processor, its serial release it is predicted in five years, and can be, as some experts of Intel, even consider earlier. As to silicon lasers with the electrical pump, integrated into semiconducting crystals their mass implantation will occur essentially before the specified processor. Serial release of optical systems will be defined by requirements of the market, as, however, and other not less interesting solutions from area of units, processing techniques and ready solutions.
In summary it is necessary to remind, that the majority of the described innovations can be considered, as consequence of development of solid-state technologies and computer architectures. They have led to development and release of the multinuclear processors which appearance promoted implementation of many interesting solutions. Moreover, new processing techniques and new models of processors were strong stimulus of development of different branches of the computer market.
Some of the most curious processing techniques and the arrangements presented on past IDF, will be described in following articles.