Technological break of Intel
Intel corporation has declared development and readiness for implantation of the new perspective substances providing improvement of private properties of transistors, high-powered processors making a basis. New solutions allow uznachitelno menshit currents of leakage flow and, accordingly, the common teploobrazovanie, that seemed until recently an insoluble problem
Development of solid-state technologies and perfection of the architecture of computer chips of processors not only expands possibilities of computers, but also turns around for scientists and engineers extremely challenges.
As is known, an original reference point for development of the branches linked to electronic parts, already more than three decades are Moore's well-known law. This empirical law predicts doubling of number of semiconducting units as a part of chips of each one and a half-two year. However, when the size of the smallest units of micrologics – transistors – from generation to generation becomes ever less, and the density of their integration on a chip of the semiconducting arrangement, according to Moore's law, promptly increases, to implementators all becomes more difficult to solve the technological problems arising owing to operation of natural laws physicists. Already today the sizes of transistors already there is less than flu virus.
Naturally, experts even more often have doubts - it is impossible to reduce infinitely the sizes of transistors, there should be any physical limit of miniaturization.
The main barriers on path of miniaturization of transistors are a heat liberation by operation of the transistor and the leakage flow of a current flow called by its penetration through extremely thin izoirujushchie layers. As a result the transistor less, the these layers, above uncontrollable currents of leakage flow, and consequently, and above a heat release already are more thin hundreds millions transistors in processors. The given negative solutions promptly accrued in process of reduction of technological scale. It also became the main criticism of the law of Moore the last years.
However, recognising the problems generated by miniaturization of transistors, and the limitations superimposed by physical laws, engineers of Intel permanently search and find nonconventional solutions. One of perspective paths is retrieval of new substances and perfection of the architecture and topology of the transistors which are a basis of all modern chips and processors.
The meeting with Frenkom Spindlerom (Frank E has been devoted a subject of the last reachings of corporation of Intel. Spindler), vice-president Corporate Technology Group of corporation of Intel, director Industry Technology Program with journalists of leading mass-media.
In the performance it has concerned some bases of the architecture of modern difficult chips which modern processors concern.
All field-effect transisors contain a special insulating layer - a thin dielectric film under a lock, i.e. an electrode controlling "inclusion" and "turn off" of the transistor. Properties of a gate dielectric make solving impact on transistor operation. The last 30 years as the main substance for a gate dielectric silicon dioxide (SiO2) used, that has been caused by its adaptability to manufacture and possibility of systematic improvement of characteristics of transistors in process of reduction of their sizes. For today in the transistors made by corporation of Intel, a thickness of a layer of a gate dielectric from silicon dioxide makes only 1,2 nanometra - that is, is comparable to five atomic layers. Actually, it is already close to a limit for the given substance as as a result of further reduction of the transistor and, as consequence, utonshenija a layer of silicon dioxide the leakage current through a gate dielectric considerably will increase that will lead to essential losses of a current and a redundant heat release. By estimations of experts of corporation of Intel, in modern chips already almost 40 % of energy are lost because of leakage flow.
Before branch for a long time there is a global task of development and implantation of new substances instead of the silicon dioxide which is on a limit of the possibilities.
Contributors of Intel offer at once two revolutionary technological solutions which allow to overcome aforementioned complexities and prolong operation of the law of Moore, at least, as early as years for ten. For solution of escalating problems of a heat release and a leakage current Intel corporation plans to substitute now in use as a gate dielectric a silicon dioxide lamina thicker layer of absolutely new dielectric material with high dielectric coefficient "to" (so-called «high-k» a dielectric material), that will allow essentially – approximately in 100 times! - to lower a leakage current. The second part of solution consists in development of a new substance (an alloy of metals) for a lock as new «high-k» the dielectric material is badly compatible to a former substance of a lock – polysilicon.
Transistors on the basis of the new substances, possessing in record parametres of productivity, are considered as a base variant for manufacture of the future processors of Intel within the limits of production with a design rule 45 nanometrov (tehprotsess at code number 1266 on the basis of 300-mm of wafers, copper interconnections, processing technique of "the expanded silicon», and also a new lock and a gate dielectric it will be already started in mass production in 2007).
Implantation of new substances has allowed already today, the truth while in laboratory conditions of pilot productions, to create transistors with high parametres.
Certainly, the lecturer should stop on the nearest schedules krporatsii Intel among which the special role is occupied with the programs linked with Radio Free Intel which arrogant purposes thanks to new substances and processing techniques became much more realnie.
It is necessary to mark, that consistently investing considerable resources in scientific researches and advanced design, Intel corporations it is possible to dispel scepticism maloverov, to provide performance of the law of Moore and to continue to create more and more powerful and at the same time compact arrangements for the wide range of users.
In conclusion of Frenk Spindler has answered numerous questions.
In article Intel substances have been used
Article is published in log the Computer the Price (Computer Price).