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The architecture and processing techniques of Intel D925XCV

Evgenie Rudometov

http://www.rudometov.com

On the basis of Intel chip set 925X Intel corporation has developed the motherboard of Intel D925XCV with two-channel solution of a subsystem of dynamic storage created on the basis of DDR2 units. In the architecture of this card a number of perspective firm processing techniques, among which, LGA775, PCI Express, Intel High Definition Audio, Intel Matrix Storage, etc.

It is known, that the modern personal computer is the multifunctional system consisting of components of rather difficult internal architecture. Thus possibilities of this system substantially depend on the given components among which one of key roles is played by the motherboard. On quality of its design, its implementation, and also various radioelements used in its structure depend not only productivity, stability and dependability of operation of the motherboard, but also functioning of all computer system as a whole.

Now tens corporations among which there are also what names thanks to quality of production well-known are engaged in development and release of motherboards. However, giving due to quality of their production, it is necessary to mark, that is frequent measurement standards of quality, stability and dependability motherboards from easily soiled Intel are. Many newest, perspective computer processing techniques developed by given corporation and often becoming branch standards are usually embodied in these cards. For this reason the corporation pays the big attention to qualitative parametres thanks to which cards become original reference points for manufacturers.

As an example of such product it is possible to result the motherboard of Intel D925XCV. Except implementation in its architecture of the last computer innovations, high technical and operation parametres are provided with qualitative units. Among these units the central place occupies recently developed chipset of system logic — Intel chip set 925X, concerning to high-powered products of the higher degree of complexity and productivity. It on the basis of the internal chains banked in rather difficult inner pattern, provides implementation of the big number of effective controllers of peripheral devices.

Intel chip set 925X the motherboard of Intel D925XCV

Fig. 1. Structure of the computer created on the basis of a chip set of Intel 925X

Intel chip set 925X (i925X) is oriented to creation of high-powered desktop personal computers and powerful workstations of initial level. Supports systems with processors of Intel of Pentium 4 with processing technique Hyper-Threading, 90 nanometers created on processing technique , hooked up through LGA775 plug and working with bus FSB of type QPB (Quad-Pumped Bus) which clock rate can make 133 or 200 MHz.

As is known, bus FSB of type QPB at clock rate of 133 MHz carries out data transfer with frequency of 533 MHz, an address part — 266 MHz that capacity to 4,2 Gbytes/with provides peak. At clock rate of 200 MHz data transfer is carried out with frequency of 800 MHz, and an address part — 400 MHz. In this mode peak capacity reaches values of 6,4 Gbytes/with. The bus supports 32-bit addressing that provides to 4 Gbytes of dynamic storage.

Traditionally for chipsets of system logic the chip set consists of two components named Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and I/O Controller Hub (ICH).

The base package of a chip set i925X consists of Intel chips 82925X Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and Intel 82801FB (ICH6). As the second chip can use improved variants ICH6. It can be Intel chip 82801FR (ICH6R), possessing the expanded possibilities of operation with a disk subsystem of memory, or Intel chip 82801FW (ICH6W) with integrated controller Wi-Fi, or Intel chip 82801FRW (ICH6RW), possessing both specified functions.

Estimating possibilities of components of a chip set, it is necessary to mark, that Intel corporation has declared the time termination of deliveries of the chips supporting wireless processing techniques. It is called while by a weak demand of similar chips in the computer market.

Chips MCH and ICH are jointed by special Direct Media Interface (DMI local bus to a transfer rate to 10 Gbit/with in each direction: a full duplex.

The MCH component contains the controllers giving interfaces with high capacity in the structure. These controllers control the system bus with data transfer with frequency of 533 or 800 MHz, and also two-channel dynamic storage. Besides, they will organise operation of graphic interface PCI Express x16 and communication facilities with a chip of input/output ICH.

Built in Intel 82925X the controller of processor bus FSB of type QPB supports the bus with clock rate of 200/133 MHz that provides data transfer on frequencies of 800/533 MHz.

Built in Intel chip 82925X the memory controller provides support of two and one-channel functional modes of memory DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM — SDRAM with data transfer on lobbies and back edges of clock pulses of the bus of memory). Patterns with usage DDR2 SDRAM with a transmission frequency of data of 400 and 533 MHz are possible . Maximum size of dynamic storage — to 4 Gbytes, support ECC is provided.

Two-channel memory DDR2 with frequency of 533 MHz has maximum capacity to 8,5 Gbytes/with.

On speed of operation i925X exceeds i915 at the expense of usage of special processing technique of operation of a subsystem of the memory which are clone of processing technique PAT, realised in the previous chip sets.

Chip MCH supports different frequency functional modes for processor and memory buses.

Handle of computer peripheral devices is carried out by the second component of a chip set. Thus it is necessary to mark, that in a chip set i925X chip ICH of the sixth version is used. According to this fact it has received name ICH6 and is presented by Intel chip 82801FB. This chip enters into a base set of a chip set i925X.

The built in resources of a chip of handle of peripheral devices of a base set support: one channel IDE with support ATA 33/66/100 (to two arrangements IDE), four ports Serial ATA 150, eight ports USB 2.0, to four PCI Express x1, to seven PCI (PCI Rev 2.3, 32 bits/33 of MHz), LPC (Low Pin Count), the controller of Intel High Definition Audio with support of three codecs, AC ’ 97 2.3 (to 8 channels), integrated controller LAN (10/100 Mb/s Ethernet), SMBus, Wireless Connect Technology (only for ICH6W/ICH6RW), APIC, ACPI Rev.2.0, and also other resources and functions.

Except Intel 82801FB as it has been specified above, usage of the expanded version of hub ICH6 — ICH6R, ICH6W, ICH6RW is possible .

The main technical parametres of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV

Fig. 2. The Motherboard of Intel D925XCV

Fig. 3. Plugs of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV

The processor

        Support of models of the processor of Intel of Pentium 4 in tank LGA775 with the system bus of 533 and 800 MHz and in tank LGA775.

Chip set

        Intel 82925X (MCH),

        Intel 82801FR,

        4 Mbit Firmware Hub (FWH).

Dynamic storage

        Four plugs (240 contact electrodes) for dynamic storage DIMM,

        Support of one or two channels of dynamic storage,

        DDR2 533 Units or DDR2 400,

        maximum size — to 4 Gbytes.

USB 2.0

        Eight (4+4) ports USB 2.0,

Video

        the Videoadapter in PCI slot Express X16.

Audio

        the Audiosubsystem of Intel High Definition Audio on the basis of codec Realtek ALC880.

LAN

        Gigabitnaja (10/100/1000 Mbit/c) a network subsystem on base gigabitnogo network controller Marvell 88E8050 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet.

System BIOS

        Intel/AMI BIOS (in 4 Mbit FWH),

        Support Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), Plug and Play and SMBIOS

Interfaces of peripheral devices

        Eight ports USB 2.0,

        One serial port,

        One parallel port,

        Four interfaces Serial ATA IDE,

        Two ports IEEE1394,

        One interface Parallel ATA IDE with support of UltraDMA 33 protocols and
ATA-66/100,

        the Interface of the floppi-drive,

        keyboard and mouse Ports PS/2.

Input/output system

        the Controller of input/output LPC.

Slots

        one PCI slot Express x16,

        two PCI slots Express x1,

        four PCI slots.

Form factor

        ATX,

        the Sizes 12.00”h 9.60”.

Features of the architecture of Intel D925XCV

The motherboard of Intel D925X is created according to referens-design which by tradition develops and the manufacturer of a chip set gives, in this case is a corporation of Intel.

Considering the architecture of the given card, it is necessary to remind, that rather recently Intel corporation has passed to the new standard of tank processors and its plug — LGA 775. It has found the reflexion and in the architecture of the motherboard of Intel D925X. Appearance of the new plug is presented in a Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The processor plug of standard LGA 775

Unfortunately, high efficiency of modern processors is accompanied considerable teploobrazovaniem. It demands appropriate resources of active cooling. So, for example, boksovyj the processor of Intel of Pentium 4 with clock rate of 3,4 GHz, calculated for operation with the bus which transmission frequency of data makes 800 MHz, is supplied by the heat sink with radial layout of edges. Considering high teplotvornuju ability of such products, in the heat sink underplate is built in an interposing from copper.

Fig. 5. A cooler of the processor with the plug of standard LGA 775 (the top view and from below)

Appropriate resources of cooling chip MCH (a Fig. 5, at the left) which structure the controllers which are responsible for link with the processor are built in, subsystems of dynamic storage and video, and also with chip ICH demands also .

Fig. 6. Chips Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and I/O Controller Hub (ICH), the coolings supplied with resources

It is necessary to mark, that the motherboard of Intel D925XCV is oriented as a basis of high-powered systems. Usage of processors of Intel of Pentium 4 with processing technique Hyper-Threading and the bus of 800 MHz providing reaching of a maximum level of productivity therefore is recommended  . However usage and less efficient models is possible. It can be, for example, the processors calculated for the bus of 533 MHz and even of 400 MHz. Thus together with the motherboard of Intel D925XCV usage of models and without support of processing technique Hyper-Threading though it and will not allow to reach extreme possible performance level is possible.

The functional mode of memory modules DDR2 SDRAM can be one-channel or two-channel. The two-channel mode allows to receive completely depthbalanced system for a case when pass-bands of the processor bus and the memory bus coincide and make equal values — 6,4 Gbytes/with. Thus operation of memory modules DDR SDRAM can be or synchronous — clock rate coincides with frequency FSB, or asynchronous — clock rate differs from frequency FSB. In case of usage DDR2 533 band reaches 8,4 Gbytes/with, that taking into account built in a subsystem of dynamic storage of buffers and internal optimisation of streams provides productivity increase.

Graphics solution PCI Express x16 provides speed to 4 Gbytes/with in each direction, that more than in three and a half time exceeds high-speed performance of the best external graphics adapters with interface AGP 8X.

For handle of input\output devices the second component which is a part of the used chip set traditionally responds. As this component of the given copy of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV Intel chip 82801FR (ICH6R), resulted on a Fig. 6 (on the right) together with resources of the cooling uses .

Fig. 7. Plugs for maps of PCI extension and PCI Express X1, and also PCI Express X16 for the videoadapter, and also a chip of audio, a network, IEEE1394

From features of the architecture it is necessary to mark an audiosubsystem realising processing technique of Intel High Definition Audio. It provides considerable improvement of playback of a multi-channel sound 48 kgts in comparison with traditional solutions AC ' 97. Support of new formats of house cinemas and support of simultaneous playback of several separate sound streams is Besides, carried out. As the codec chip Realtek ALC880 presented in a Fig. 7 (it is marked red above, at the left) is used . By means of the given chip possibility of hooking up of audiosystems under the standard 7.1 is realised.

The network controller Gigabit Ethernet realised on a chip of controller Marvell Yukon 88E8050 PCI Express and presented on Fig. 7 is built in the motherboard architecture (it is marked red above, on the right). The given integrated network tools allow to include easily the computer through built in RJ-45 (LAN plug in local area network structure.

In addition to the enumerated controllers in the architecture the chip realising serial interface IEEE1394 (FireWire) is added. This interface is realised on the basis of chip Agere FW323-06 presented in a Fig. 7 (it is marked red from below).

Fig. 8. Plugs of a disk subsystem of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV

One more novelty in the architecture of new motherboards is a processing technique of Intel Matrix Storage. This processing technique realised in ICH6R and ICH6RW, provides high efficiency at usage of one disk or a RAID-file.

Increases productivity of hard disks by means of processing technique RAID 0 and protects data by means of processing technique RAID 1, applying them on the same disks. Interface AHCI raises productivity thanks to integration of sequence of commands and provides support of hot installation and changeover of hard disks.

The processing technique of Intel Matrix Storage helps to protect data, simultaneously raising productivity in comparison with systems with one hard disk. And it is important, that supports transition from a pattern "RAID ready" with one hard disk on array RAID 0 or RAID 1 without OS reinstallation.

The motherboard architecture incorporates four ports Serial ATA 150 (four arrangements) and one port Parallel ATA-100 (UltraDMA 100/66/33, two arrangements IDE). The increase in number of ports Serial ATA and abbreviation traditional Parallel ATA-100 testifies to step-by-step transition to consecutive, more perspective interfaces.

In a Fig. 8 plugs of the disk subsystem which are a part of the architecture of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV are presented.

Considering perspective processing techniques, it is necessary to mark, that, generally speaking, in a number of motherboards support of wireless transmission media of the information — processing technique of Intel Wireless Connect is provided also . This support is provided with the architecture of chips ICH6RW and ICH6W.

The processing technique of Intel Wireless Connect simplifies expansion of wireless networks thanks to presence of the integrated point of the access supporting processing technique of Intel Centrino for transportable PCs. Also supports hooking up to stereosystems and TVs by means of adapter DMA. However for processing technique operation the special network adapter of Intel PRO/Wireless 2225BG is required. This adapter can be present not at all systems. The given processing technique to the full will be realised a little bit later in the subsequent variants of cards from Intel.

Unfortunately, recently Intel corporation has declared the time termination of release of components ICH6W and ICH6RW, but will probably restore their release after a while.

For the extension of the computer system created on the basis of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV, the appropriate slots presented by traditional PCI plugs and PCI Express x1 are. Thus it is necessary to mark, that the subsystem of input/output PCI Express x1 provides speed more than in 500 Mb per second. It more than in 3,5 times exceeds speed of traditional PCI architecture which, as is known, has capacity in 133 Mb per second.

And it is finite, implementation of new processing techniques does not eliminate usage of the previous developments which were extended in motherboards from Intel. So, for example, it is possible to find in Intel D925XCV both a quick start, and the control of speed of rotation of the processor fan, etc.

Power supply of units of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV is carried out through system of impulse stabilising devices.

In a three-channel impulse surge protector of the processor (a Fig. 9), traditionally allocated round a processor socket, the considerable quantity of filtering capacitors is applied: 5 capacitors on 1200 mkf and 8 on 560 mkf.

Fig. 9. VRM the motherboard of Intel D925XCV

Except this converter, on the card there are additional converters of supply voltage PCI Express  x16 and dynamic storage units. In addition to the given converters in the motherboard architecture additional plugs of power supplies are provided, it is possible to see it in a Fig. 2 and a Fig. 8.

Presence of power +5 In Standby on the motherboard is displayed by a green light-emitting diode.

Considering possibilities of the given motherboard, it is necessary to mark, that in it a number of the customisations providing rise of productivity is realised: customisation tajmingov memories, possibility of change of the frequency divider for bus PCI/PCI-E x1, a choice of frequency of operation of memory, the change of power submitted on memory modules, and even change of frequency of the processor bus from-2 % to +4 %.

In the architecture of the motherboard of Intel D925XCV possibilities of hardware monitoring are realised. It is carried out by means of chip National Semiconductor PC8374LOIBU/VLA. It provides the control over supply voltages and operation of cooling fans.

Are inspected: powers of the processor, memory, +3,3 and +12; processor and card temperatures.

Stability and dependability

At performance of numerous, durable tests the card of Intel D925XCV worked steadily as it usually and is characteristic for products of this manufacturer.

As to dependability on the basis of testing of one given copy it is difficult to estimate this parametre. However it is known, that products of the given manufacturer are characterised by high dependability. Nevertheless, for reception of concrete numerical estimations of the given parametre for the card of Intel D925XCV it is necessary to access or to the computer corporations realising this product, or it is direct to the manufacturer of mother chamber — Intel corporations through its representations.

However, despite of everything it is possible to mark that circumstance as the important fact, that on the motherboard of Intel D925XCV high guarantee period — is installed three years.

The high-powered card of Intel D925XCV which has embodied in the architecture a number of the newest, perspective processing techniques, can be recommended a wide range of the users interested in steady and a safe operation of accessories from known manufacturers.

The motherboard of Intel D925XCV is given by representation of corporation of Intel


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