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Evolution of transportable chip sets of Intel

(Continuation)

Evgenie Rudometov

authors@rudometov.com

Correct usage of processors and successful development of their architecture demands adequate chipsets of system logic — chip sets. Implementation of potential possibilities of processors, together with efficiency of their interaction substantially depends on operation of these sets with other units and computer subsystems, that in a finite role defines functionality of computers

On the basis of the stored experience of development and maintenance of desktop systems with processors of Intel of Pentium in rather short period it was possible to create compact and high-powered transportable systems. Their basis of a steel of model of the transportable processor of Intel of Pentium 4 – M and chipsets of system logic (chip sets) of the set of Intel 852 (i852). The given multifunctional chip sets in which have found the incarnation perspective processing techniques energosberezhenija, have allowed to release perfect enough arrangements favourably differing from the predecessors.

However, estimating potential possibilities of chip sets of the given set, in detail considered in the first part of given article, it is not necessary to forget about features of transportable processors serviced by them. Kernels NestBurst created on the basis of the architecture, well fulfilled on desktop and server prototypes, they provide rather productivity high levels. However side property of the given architecture grounded on usage high clock rates of operation of a kernel, is rather big energopotreblenie. Unfortunately, it energopotreblenie is difficult enough to compensate special processing techniques of type Enhanced Intel SpeedStep and Deeper Sleep Alert.

For this reason experts of Intel taking into account the stored experience had been developed the new kernel created from null and named Banias.

Profitability and besprovodnost

The new processors developed on the basis of kernel Banias have received the name of Intel of Pentium M. Not pressing in particular the given architecture and features of implementation of inner patterns, it is necessary to recognise, that the project was extremely successful. As a result of the spent efforts new processors not only provided productivity high levels, but also were characterised extremely low energopotrebleniem. Consumed energy is saved by all sites of the processor and system, including the cache memory of the second level allocated on a chip of a kernel, and the system bus of the processor, not used which lines are disabled. The processor kernel optimises power consumption at the expense of disconnecting from power supplies and communication circuits of idle blocks. However in economic modes work not only internal chains of a kernel, the cache memory and the processor bus, but even a dynamic storage subsystem. All sites not participating in operation and units are or in a dream mode, or are temporarily disabled until they will not be claimed by units of the system and applied software executable on the computer.

All enumerated features demanded appropriate support from a chip set. Therefore simultaneously with the processor of Intel of Pentium M the new chip set received the name i855 and realising together with the processor of a resource and processing techniques energosberezhenija has been developed.

The given chip set is presented by three variants. By analogy to the predecessor i852 they have received following names: i855GME, i855GM, i855PM.

The first most powerful variant of a chip set has the built in graphics resources and provides support of external AGP 4X videoadapter. Supports the processor bus with a transmission frequency of the given 400 MHz, dynamic storage of type DDR 333/266/200, total amount to 2 Gbytes.

Fig. 6. Structure of the computer with a chip set i855GME

The second variant of a chip set has the built in graphics resources and does not provide support of the external videoadapter. This variant also supports the processor bus with frequency of 400 MHz, dynamic storage of type DDR 200/266, size to 2 Gbytes.

The third variant of a chip set any more has built in graphics no resource, but provides support of external AGP 4X videoadapter . Supports the processor bus with frequency of 400 MHz, memory of type DDR 333/266/200, size to 2 Gbytes.

Considering possibilities of the built in video resources, it is necessary to mark, that graphics kernel Extreme Graphics 2 supports the newest application programming interfaces for processing of two-and the three-dimensional drawing. The internal 256-bit wire allows to handle for one pass to four textures on pixel that provides usage of advanced circuits of illuminance, cloning of atmospheric effects and more realistic mapping of units of a surface. The maximum size of a video memory is increased to 64 Mb that has allowed to organise more effective operation of bus AGP with dynamically selected video memory. In Intel Extreme Graphics 2 the arbitration mechanism between the central processor unit and a graphics subsystem also is improved at access to system memory. Result is the effective utilisation of specialised buses and rise of the common productivity of all system.

At usage in the transportable computer of units of dynamic storage of type DDR 333 the integrated graphics solution i855GME shows more high efficiency, than graphics solution in i855GM. In a chip set i855GME it is used integrated 32-bit 3D/2D a graphics adapter with frequency to 250 MHz, bikubicheskoj filtering, Video Mixer Rendering or AGP4X plug (for installation of an external graphics adapter).

As in all variants of a chip set of i855 set the same component, as in i852 set uses, functionality of the built in resources of input/output coincides. It means, that all variants of this system set support 6 ports USB, UltraDMA/100, etc., and also processing techniques energosberezhenija type Enhanced Intel SpeedStep and Deeper Sleep Alert.

Among perspective processing techniques of saving of energy it is necessary to mark processing technique of Intel Display Power Saving Technology (Intel DPST). Application of this processing technique allows to lower energopotreblenie the liquid crystal panel of the display on the value to 25 %. It is reached by a number of the functions built in video resources, for example, at the expense of lowering of frequency of a graphics kernel by operation from batteries. Besides, there is a possibility of the automatic analysis of the output map and level of environing illuminance. By results of the analysis the hardware-software resources, which basis are made by a chip set, carry out selftuning of brightness of the screen without essential lowering of quality of the output map, but at saving of energy standalone energopitanija.

Estimating possibilities of i855 set which are ensuring functioning of Intel of Pentium M which models are created on processing technique of 130 nanometers (kernel Banias) or 90 nanometers (kernel Dothan created on the basis of kernel Banias), it is necessary to mark, that Intel company has added the given sheaf of the newest products with one more component. It is a question of implantation of resources of the wireless access presented by the unit of Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG. These resources work under standard IEEE 802.11a/b/g and have received name Wi-Fi. The collection of the specified three components has been named by processing technique of Intel Centrino (Intel Centrino mobile technology), on popularisation and which advancement on the computer market Intel corporation has spent and continues to spend considerable financial assets. For this reason Intel company has decided not to refuse from become already popular brand of Intel Centrino for a soya of recently declared perspective platform Sonoma. The basis of this platform was made by the newest transportable chip set which earlier announced as Alviso and has been rather in detail examined still during autumn session IntelDeveloper Forum (IDF) of 2004.

Platform Sonoma and chip set Alviso

Before to pass to consideration of the newest solutions linked to a new platform and a chip set, it is necessary to mark, that the requirement of mobility does not reduce necessity of increase in productivity. And one of paths is the increase in a transmission frequency of data on the bus of the processor with 400 to 533 MHz. For support of new processors the appropriate platform which has received name Sonoma recently has been presented.

Fig. 7. One of variants recommended by corporation of Intel of design (kontsept Florence) a notebook created on the basis of platform Sonoma

This platform defines referens-design of transportable systems of a new generation. Chip set Mobile Intel 915 Express with code name Alviso (further i915) became its basis.

In the newest platform Sonoma and a chip set i915 have found incarnation the advanced development which has been already checked up in desktop systems, created on the basis of desktop chip sets of the set of the similar name. First of all, it for the first time realised for transportable solutions support of two-or one-channel subsystems of memory DDR2 400/533 with a pass-band to 8,5 Gbytes and total amount to 2 Gbytes; the external videoadapters which are hooked up by means of bus PCI-Express x16 with capacity on 4 Mb in both directions (8 Gbytes against hardly more than 2 Gbytes for AGP 8X) and resources of the built in drawing of Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 900 (Intel GMA 900) with double productivity of kernel Extreme Graphics 2 used in similar resources of chip sets of i855 set. In the field of handle of input/output are realised bus PCI Express x1, used for maps of extensions and providing twice the big capacity in comparison with traditional PCI, and also interface Serial ATA for disk drives, processing techniques AC ’ 97 2.3 and Intel High Definition Audio (32 bits, to 192 kgts, a 8-channel sound of the standard 7.1, processing techniques Dolby), etc. To enumerated it is necessary to add built in TV-output, providing hooking up of television screens, and also possibility of usage of additional screen monitors.

All resulted functions, by the way, have been realised for the first time in the desktop systems created on the basis of models of the set of the desktop chipset of the system logic of the similar name — i915, and also a desktop chip set i925. Now the same possibilities are realised also by resources of a new high-powered transportable chip set i915, presented by three versions: i915GM, i915PM, i915GMS.

It is necessary to mark, that the given models are not complete clones of desktop variants though as it is visible from the enumerated features, in many respects architecturally and functionally coincide with them. But also korpusirovka, and inner patterns have the differences.

The chip set i915GM is the most powerful variant from transportable sets i915. It supports processors of Intel of Pentium M, Intel of Pentium M Low Voltage (LV — a power supply low voltage), Intel of Pentium M Ultra Low Voltage (ULV — an ultralow supply voltage), Intel Celeron M, Intel Celeron M ULV with the processor bus of 533 or 400 MHz, the built in drawing of Intel GMA 900, the external PCI Express x16 videoadapter, one or two channels DDR2 400/533.

Fig. 8. Structure of the computer with chip set MobileIntel 915GM

The chip set i915PM has no built in graphics resources, but provides external PCI Express x16 videoadapter. It supports processors of Intel of Pentium M, Intel of Pentium M (LV), Intel of Pentium M (ULV), Intel Celeron M, Intel Celeron M (ULV) with the processor bus of 533 or 400 MHz and one or two channels DDR2 333/400/533.

The chip set i915GMS is specially developed for notebooks of the small form factor calculated on energoekonomichnye of model of processors of Intel of Pentium M (LV), Intel of Pentium M (ULV), Intel Celeron M (ULV). It has the built in resources of Intel GMA 900 with productivity in 1,4 times more i855GME (it is necessary to pay attention, that for i915GM — in 2 times). Besides, the chip set i915GMS supports the bus only 400 MHz (for i915GM — both 400 MHz, and 533 MHz) and supports only one channel of memory DDR2 of 400 MHz (for i915GM — both DDR2 400, and DDR2 533).

It is necessary to add, that for handle of peripheral devices in base packages of the enumerated models of a transportable chip set i915 ICH6-M component usage is provided. It supports operation of two ports Serial ATA-150 and one port Parallel ATA-100, to eight ports USB 2.0, an audiosystem of Intel High Definition Audio (Azalia) and AC ’ 97 2.3 (to three codecs), 10/100 Mbit Ethernet LAN, buses PCI and PCI Express x1 for maps of extensions, etc . Processing techniques energosberezhenija, including processing technique of Intel Display Power Saving Technology 2 (Intel DPST 2), providing lowering energopotreblenija LCD-displays are besides, supported. By the way, the built in video resources give possibility of review of two independent maps at hooking up of the external screen monitor or the panel to a notebook.

Estimating functionality of a chip set i915, it is necessary to mark and support of a wireless way of network connect for high-speed data transfer. It has found the incarnation in the new version of processing technique of Intel Centrino. The popular brand is saved, but it has received new filling in the name of the processor of Intel of Pentium M with the bus of 533 MHz, a chip set i915 and the unit of wireless data transfer. As the given unit uses or adapter Pro/Wireless 2200BG, supporting standards IEEE 801.11b and IEEE 802.11g, or two-band tryohrezhimnyj adapter Pro/Wirelss 2915ABG. This adapter supports not only specifications IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g, but also IEEE 802.11a protocol which works in a frequency band of 5,2 GHz. However, while standard IEEE 802.11a in Russia is not resolved, but the problem is in a negotiation stage.

Fig. 8. Components of Intel Centrino of platform Sonoma

Simultaneously with the chip set set i915 for transportable computers within the limits of platform Sonoma has been declared and released for the chipset of system logic of Intel 910GML Express (i910GML). This rather inexpensive chip set is optimised for usage with processors of Intel Celeron M and Intel Celeron M Ultra Low Voltage (ULV — an ultralow supply voltage). It includes the built in graphics subsystem similar i915, — Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 900, thus usage of the external videoadapter by the architecture of the given chip set is not provided. I910GML chipset supports to 2 Gbytes of one-channel or two-channel memory DDR2 400 at the common low energopotreblenii, and PCI Express architecture, as well as in a case i915, supports the newest peripheral devices ExpressCard. Besides, the architecture of a chip set at the expense of usage of same chip ICH6-M provides support of the same functions, as in case of models of a transportable chip set i915. And it means presence SerialATA and UltraDMA, PCI and PCIExpress, USB 2.0, LAN, multi-channel audio etc .

It is necessary to add, that by means of i915GM chipsets and i910GML for transportable PCs it is possible to create the common card for the transportable PCs, providing scalability of transportable platform Sonoma. It not in a small degree is promoted by the similar architecture of chip sets. Usage of the newest solid-state technologies with which help it was possible to realise the big number of the chips of various innovations built in structure, including the integrated audio and video resources, has provided high compactness of transportable systems.

Key parametres of the set of chip sets i915 and i910

Chip set model

Mobile Intel 915GM Exspress Chipset

Mobile Intel 915GMS Exspress Chipset

Mobile Intel 915PM Exspress Chipset

Mobile Intel 910GML Exspress Chipset

Supported processors

Intel OF PENTIUM M
Intel OF PENTIUM M (LV)
Intel OF PENTIUM M (ULV)
Intel Celeron M
Intel Celeron M (ULV)

Intel OF PENTIUM M (LV)
Intel OF PENTIUM M (ULV)
Intel Celeron M (ULV)

Intel OF PENTIUM M
Intel OF PENTIUM M (LV)
Intel OF PENTIUM M (ULV)
Intel Celeron M
Intel Celeron M (ULV)

Intel Celeron M
Intel Celeron M (ULV)

Frequency of the bus of the processor, MHz

533:

Intel OF PENTIUM M
400:

Intel OF PENTIUM M (LV)
Intel OF PENTIUM M (ULV)
Intel Celeron M

400

533:

Intel OF PENTIUM M
400:

Intel OF PENTIUM M (LV)
Intel OF PENTIUM M (ULV)
Intel Celeron M

400

Memory: number of / units Max. Size, a Gbyte

2 / 2

2 / 2

2 / 2

2 / 2

Memory: type

DDR2 400/533

DDR2 400

DDR2 400/533

DDR2 400

Memory: number of channels

Two / One

One

Two / One

Two / One

The integrated drawing

Intel GMA 900
(320 MHz at 1.5)
(133/160/200 MHz at 1.05)

Intel GMA 900
(133/160 MHz at 1.05 )

No

Intel GMA 900
(133/160 MHz at 1.5 )
(133/160 MHz at 1.05 )

TV-Out

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

IDE / ATA, ports

1 / 2

1 / 2

1 / 2

1 / 2

USB, ports

8

8

8

8

LAN

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

PCI Express I/O

4

4

4

4

Audio

Azalia 24  bits 192  kgts
AC ' 97 2.3 Audio

Azalia 24 bits 192 kgts
AC ' 97 2.3 Audio

Azalia 24 bits 192 kgts
AC ' 97 2.3 Audio

Azalia 24 bits 192 kgts
AC ' 97 2.3 Audio

Integrated or digital

As follows from the description of transportable chip sets, from them the integrated graphics resources have a part, others provide usage of external videoadapters.

Concerning lowering energopotreblenija it is necessary to remind, that in the last chipsets of system logic optimum control of frequency of a kernel of the three-dimensional drawing which are carrying out output of a video information on the screen is carried out. Lowering energopotreblenija at the expense of handle of frequency of a kernel of a three-dimensional drawing and output of the optimal map to the screen depending on requirements of the application is as a result provided. Besides, depending on processing technique customisations energosberezhenija Intel Display Power Saving and used hardware of the computer system is provided, as lowering energopotreblenija highlightings of the display to 25 % affirms implementators of the set of this chip set. This rather considerable saving is accompanied by the minimum losses of quality of the map for the end user transportable computers. Estimating the given innovations it is necessary to mark support of processing technique of Intel Dual-Frequency Graphics providing reduced energopotreblenie integrated graphics subsystem. It is necessary to mention, that the high-scale of integration provided ispolzumym with a procedure, has allowed to create more thin and easy transportable computers in comparison with predecessors. As to productivity of systems more than it is enough of it not only for performance of office applications, but also solution of multimedia tasks, for example, video review.

It only a part of advantages of the integrated resources realised by engineers of corporation of Intel, inspecting by means of the products more than 80 % (according to some information more than 85 %) the modern computer market of transportable solutions.

However it is necessary to mark, that certain advantages have also solutions in which basis the digital variants presented by appropriate videoadapters lay. Considering, that the geometry processor is space is separated from a North Bridge (MCH component kernel, there is a real possibility to provide optimal conditions for maintenance at the expense of improvement of electromagnetic compatibility, thermal modes, etc. It well affects quality of the video map in high-resolutions. Besides, usage of external videoadapters gives possibility to provide more productivity high levels. However, it is necessary to mark, that it is reached at the expense of rise energopotreblenija and deterioration of some consumer parametres which concern, for example, weight, dimensions, time of offline work from the built in batteries, etc.

Well and what solution to select, integrated or digital  — depends on tasks in view, also as well as what platforms (and to chip sets) should be preferred.

Chip sets for desknoutov

Considering features of implementation of the architecture of transportable systems, it is necessary to mark, that except transportable processors and the appropriate chip sets, recently some manufacturers have adjusted release of the products created on the basis of completing desktop solutions. Such pseudo-transportable computers are released, as a rule, without standalone power supplies and are only for changeover of bulky desktop systems. For such compact solutions the special name is created even: class computers DeskNote. In such computers high-powered processors IntelPentium 4 and desktop chip sets of i845 sets, i865, i875, i915, i925 actively use.

Contrary to the given tendency it is necessary to mark, that there are the desktop systems which basis is made by transportable processors and transportable chip sets. The premise of such approach are desire to create energoekonomichnye solutions c essentially smaller levels teploobrazovanija. As consequence, necessity of usage of powerful tools of cooling therefore such systems are characterised by essentially smaller noise levels on matching with the desktop clones passes. Moreover, in the market there are sentences on usage of similar solutions in the field of development of economic server systems, as, a rule, format Blade.

Perspectives

Now the most perfect and popular transportable processors of Intel are presented by the products created on the basis of kernel Dothan on processing technique of 90 nanometers. However in the second half of the year 2005 release of the processor possessing already two computing kernels and the cache memory considerably bolshej of size is planned.

This product from Intel has received name Jonah. Further, as it follows from substances IDF 2004, on its basis release of products of following generation of multinuclear processors — Merom and Conroe is planned . They will be created on processing technique of 65 nanometers, and their appearance in the computer market is expected in 2006 . These processors will possess two, and 4 Mb of cache memory L2, support of 64-bit extensions and processing techniques of effective hardware enciphering LaGrande are possible also the big number of kernels. Further to the 32-bit architecture the expanded possibilities of hardware implementation of 64-bit calculations will be added.

Certainly, all these processors for implementation of the possibilities will demand appropriate chip sets which bessomnenija will be created. Probably, as well as in case of transportable chip sets of i915 set, as a basis the future desktop solutions will serve, for example, for support of the nearest schedules them can become i945 which properties in detail discuss on the Internet. In this case, appearance transportable i945 is probable.

Estimating all enumerated schedules of Intel, it is necessary to mark, that, most likely, competitors of this company will not maintain aloofness from scientific and technical progress. Bessomnenija they will offer the variants of systems. Also it is possible to assert, that users from it only will win, having received bolshee a variety of solutions for the comprehensible prices.

In article open substances of corporation of Intel are used


Article is published in log Byte (http://www.bytemag.ru).

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