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Virtual Reality — the world created by the computer

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Article is grounded on book substances "the PC Architecture, accessories, multimedia" —  SPb: Peter, 2000, 416 with.

Rise of power of computers and perfection of hardware-software resources of input/output of the information have allowed to expand essentially connectivities of the person and the modern computer — a computer human interface. It, eventually, promoted appearance and development of new sphere of usage of computers — a computer Virtual Reality.

As a matter of fact, a computer Virtual Reality (VR) are the illusory worlds created by the computer. Their properties depend on technical parametres of hardware, and possibilities of the applied and system software. The given software is intended to solve, as a rule, a certain circle of the tasks concerning spheres of training, leisure, engineering, a science, the industry etc . As input/output resources select the arrangements realising a computer human interface in convenient and effective, but not to traditional form VR. Usually VR is three-dimensional, volume, the map and the three-dimensional sound, providing a realness high-scale.

It can be walks and travel in historical places or interactive, volume cinema in which as one or several heroes one or several users can appear. Besides, it can be various games. The person, the user of the computer, "gets" to the similar computer worlds by means of certain means — the computer with the appropriate programs, special points, helmets, displays, sensors on hands and feet etc . Quality of perception and possibility of effect depend on perfection of used means on objects in such illusory computer world, that is an imbedding degree in the Virtual Reality — the world created by programs and means of the computer.

The Virtual Reality has many various formal and informal definitions. One of such definitions can be formulated as follows:

The virtual Reality is a mashinno-generated environment, at "imbedding" in which it seems to the user, that it is in the illusory, virtual world. For this purpose the various sensors hooked up to the computer effecting sense organs (in the long term — on all) the given user use . It is thus provided not only output, but also input of the information and commands in the computer with which help the Virtual Reality is realised.

The given direction of a computer human interface is extremely perspective and intensively develops. Especially it concerns various scientific applications, and also training and leisure systems, for example, games and interactive cinema if in general it is possible to name it so. The matter is that at usage modern, concerning powerful computer systems already today the degree of realness of the sound and visual information is so high, that speech can go about absolutely new approaches to learning processes and leisure, and even about new forms of art.

Using the rich graphic resources inherent in computer processing techniques, it is possible to create in space VR constructions, impossible in the real world, for example, such as for well-known Eshera. Or to occupy the imagined world tvarjami, similar to monsters and Bosch's monsters and Goji, to create the world of El Salvador of the Distance, and it is possible and to wander in Levitan's wood.

Already today the show business grounded on usage VR promptly develops. The big future for the adventure scenarios providing collective involvement of several persons is predicted. Unlike traditional films, including even what use stereoeffects, this new art form provides interactive interaction of participants. It means, that they, operating collectively, can change the environment in space VR. For example, together to travel. And a safari in VR? It all the same is more humane, the present hunting.

However it is not necessary to consider, that the described areas settle sphere of application of the given computer resources. Now the computer human interface providing implementation of the mashinno-generated environments — computer Virtual Realities, has the important applied value. As, however, and many other things reachings of a modern Science.

Using specialised resources of the hardware-software interface and possibility VR, it is possible to change radically learning process in the most different fields of knowledge. It can be physics, the chemistry, biology, geography, the architecture, history, art. The list can be continued, apparently, indefinitely. And the modern mathematics and solution it is extreme challenges, output and the analysis of received results?

It is known, that interpretation of solutions of the difficult mathematical equations often is enough challenge. It is even more difficult, when for the purpose of optimisation in the difficult equation it is necessary to select depending on earlier calculated and parsed results parametres for reception of new data. The example of such problem — solution extremely difficult the equations from physics of the continuous environments, by the way, which special case is law Bernulli, well-known of school course of physics. One of the tasks solved by means of the similar equations, in interests of the aviation industry has been fulfilled in short period with application of resources and possibilities VR. The result of solution of the equations was output in VR in the form of the big volume schedule — a colour body of the freakish form. The form and colour described speed, turbulence, space distribution of the streams which are flowing round units of flying machines. Colour set speed. The given virtual construction could be examined, bypassed, touched carefully. And all it in space VR! Change of parametres it was possible to change both the form, and colour, achieving the necessary result. In some experiences which are carried out in space VR, process of correction of parametres of very difficult equations was carried out by the contributor directly in space VR by means of special gloves — gloves. It supplied gloves and, of course, with a special helmet, worked actually as the sculptor-abstract artist. Practical result of similar researches — optimal forms of the new turbo-propeller plane and blades of its screws. Fuel expenditure has decreased almost on 25 %. And it is a lot of.

Obviously, similar methods can be used not only in interests of aircraft. Researches for submarines therefore the form of tank and a functional mode of screws have been optimised that has resulted not only in fuel saving, but also to lowering of hydroacoustic noise have been similarly fulfilled. The given circumstance has allowed to raise reserve essentially, by the way.

Other example — usage of possibilities VR by such known organisation, as NASA. The given organisation already rather uses for a long time various specialised arrangements VR for training of astronauts, for example, to orientation under celestial maps. Wide researches on handle of space vehicles and systems from VR by means of various computer arrangements are besides, carried out. Thus experts, using systems VR, physically are in safe conditions, for example, on the Earth, and the sensors handling the various information in the computer, and the final control devices accepting and executing the commands, — in space. Thus handle objects can be allocated on spaceships, servers, even in a free space. It is meant, that by the person, being in complete safety, receives by means of resources VR in the convenient and natural form all size of the necessary information unavailable in natural conditions for sense organs of the person. It can be electrical signals, radio-waves, infra-red or X-radiation, other-wordly temperatures, high and the pressure low levels, the dangerous gas environments etc . Using this information, by means of computer arrangements the person can supervise over executive mechanisms, for example, the robot, estimating environing space by means of its sensor controls. Thus the robot can be in the conditions unsuitable and dangerous to person. By the way, similar mechanisms can be not in space, and we will tell, on an ocean floor or in a volcano muzzle.

Results of similar researches extremely encouraging. But perspectives of their usage are in direct relation to development of computer processing techniques.

Unfortunately, power of the majority of modern computers and possibilities of resources of the interface has not enough for implementation high-grade VR which could compete on realness, that is on effect on sense organs, with associates, material, the world. Therefore possibilities VR described in numerous sci-fi movies of type "Lawn-mower", "the Virtual reality" etc . — the future, than the present, even taking into account productivity of modern supercomputers of type Cray and Cyber is faster. However computer processing techniques develop, and productivity of a computer technology promptly grows. Some units VR already have reached today very much a realness high-scale. Even on usual computers with processors of Pentium II, and even sometimes and more low, such possibilities as a volume sound — a 3D-sound, the qualitative stereomap etc. are accessible  . Certainly, for implementation of the given possibilities appropriate arrangements of the interface, together with the software without which the given arrangements remain rather expensive, but unnecessary and useless units of difficult computer systems are required.

It is published in log "you and your computer"


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