usEnglish       ruRussian       deGerman      

Dispersal of processors AMD Duron

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Article is grounded on substances of books PC: customisation, optimisation and dispersal — SPb: BHV, 1999, 256 c. And PC: customisation, optimisation and dispersal — 2 izd., the reslave. And dop. — SPb: BHV, 2000, 336 

The high technological level of production of processors and perfection of their architectures define not only high potential possibilities of the given units, but also pawn the big spare of productivity, to realise which it is possible by means of dispersal procedure.

The history of development of computer processing techniques is accompanied by launches and falling of corporations, ingenious inventions, discoveries and deadlock directions. Before

To pass to the subject which has been taken out in header, it is expedient to remind a number of the facts.

The beginning of a computer epoch could be counted from development and release in 1971 the corporation of Intel of the first-ever processor i4004. Perfection of the architecture of processors has allowed engineers of IBM to create the personal computer which has become by a prototype of modern powerful systems in 1981 . However electronic parts, such as processors, chip sets etc . Are not unique reaching and riches of the corporation of Intel. Being the ancestor of the computer industry and its indisputable leader, this corporation makes the big impact on development of branch not only through the products, but also through development and implantation of numerous standards, the majority from which it providently patents. On the one hand the high level of these developments promotes perfection of the architecture of modern computers, with another — patent limitations to some extent constrain the common development. As an example of similar developments it is possible to result Slot 1 and processor bus GTL +. Their usage is limited by licence agreements. And it is finite, the corporation-implementator limits a circle of the partners, interfering in every way to appearance of powerful competitors.

But, as shows a life, progress to stop it is impossible. Not having possibility to take advantage of the specified developments, the immemorial competitor of the leader AMD corporation has found the solution from the added lockup. As a result of the researches it not only has developed the bar of the powerful processors which have received name AMD Athlon, but also has essentially changed the traditional architecture of the computer, having inserted alternative standards on the processor bus and the processor plug. Moreover, these changes of a steel not only revolutionary for the architecture of computers, but also have rendered beneficial influence on the common productivity of systems.

First of all, as a basis the new processor bus has served, having allowed AMD corporation, not breaking patent limitations to make technological break. Calculation has been made on bus Alpha EV6 developed by DEC corporation (Digital Equipment Corporation) for processors Alpha and licensed for the products of type Athlon by AMD corporation.

Bus Alpha EV6 used as the bus of the processor (FSB), provides data transfer on both fronts of clock pulses (double-data-rate — DDR). Such processing technique of data transfer increases capacity, providing growth of productivity of all system of the computer. At clock rate of 100 MHz bus FSB Alpha EV6 named usually EV6 or DDR FSB, provides data transfer with frequency of 200 MHz, unlike bus GTL + and its improved modification of bus AGTL +, used with processors Celeron, Pentium II/III of the corporation of Intel. For these buses the transmission frequency of data coincides with clock rate.

In addition to the new bus, by analogy to processors of Intel of Pentium II and Pentium III (Katmai) AMD corporation has developed the variants of the processor card and the processor plug named Slot A.

In the course of perfection of the architecture and the production of processors linked to transition from 0,25 microns to 0,18 microns of processing technique, AMD corporation, as well as Intel corporation, has transferred the cache memory of the second level from the processor card on a processor chip, having banked their uniform tank of a chip of the processor. So have appeared AMD Duron and Thunderbird. These processors are delivered in tank of type PGA.

Motherboards under processors of this type contain the special plug — PGA-socket, named Socket A (462 contact electrodes).

Processors AMD Thunderbird have 128 Kbytes of the cache memory of the first level (L1) and 256 Kbytes of the cache memory of the second level (L2). Processors Thunderbird often name simply Athlon, meaning thus Athlon for Socket A.

Processors AMD Duron fulfilled, as well as AMD Athlon (Thunderbird), on 0,18 microns of processing technique, differs from them only in the size of the cache memory of the second level, to components of 64 Kbytes. They have practically identical architectures, and also equal frequency bus EV6 operations. However in view of smaller size of the cache memory of the second level (L2) on productivity processors AMD Duron concede to more powerful prototype.

Processors AMD Duron are oriented to the sector of cheap computers traditionally occupied with computers with processors of Intel Celeron. However, as practice shows, processors AMD Duron, unlike the competitors, thanks to higher frequency of the bus of the processor show more high efficiency at the smaller price.

Considering possibilities of usage of the forced modes, it is necessary to take into consideration, that processors AMD Duron, as well as their predecessors AMD Athlon in konstruktive Slot A and AMD Athlon (Thunderbird) in Socket A, and as competing processors of Intel of Pentium II and Pentiums III (Katmai, Coppermine), have the fixed multiplier — a multiplication factor frequency, linking internal and external frequency the processor.

Because of arresting of a frequency factor speeding up of operation of processors is carried out, as a rule, at the expense of increase external frequency — frequency processor FSB EV6 buses. At all advantages the high operating frequency of the bus of processor EV6 creates certain difficulties for its further rise in modes of dispersal of processors AMD.

Features of processor bus EV6 and the architecture of existing motherboards, despite an existing technological store for processors AMD Duron, as well as for processors AMD Athlon (Thunderbird), do not allow substantial growth clock frequency. Applying this method, it is necessary to consider boundedness of the given resource for dispersal. Usually this frequency manages to be raised no more than on 10 % concerning standard value. Nevertheless, this increase frequency is accompanied by equivalent growth of productivity of the processor and, accordingly, all computer.

Results of the fulfilled researches linked to the analysis of possibility of operation in the forced mode of high-powered processors AMD Duron are more low presented.


Article continuation>>

To pass to razrelu Processors