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The world of computers, radio and optics (on substances IDF). A part 1.

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Contrary to opinion of pessimists, already tens years of numerous limits predicting existence to scientific and technical progress, development of computer processing techniques proceeds. Computers become less, and their power and functionality promptly grow. And as substances spring and autumn IDF testify 2002 , existence of insuperable limits to this development is not predicted, at least, within the next decades.

The mankind always tried to glance in the future to accelerate arrival of the light and rich future, and also to avoid possible errors and annoying lockups. For coordination of the efforts scientists, engineers and technicians try to introduce the creative activity. Become kind tradition IDF (IDF - Intel Developer Forum), devoted to high technologies in the field of computers and electronics. These Forums are the largest action for implementators of hardware and the software.

At meetings IDF led in the different countries of the world within all year, the advanced processing techniques and products of electronic branches of the industry defining possibilities of a modern computer technology are discussed. Besides, at these meetings by the largest experts perspective directions are discussed, and also possibilities of existing and future processing techniques are parsed.

And though already many it is accepted to decrypt the first character in IDF as Industry and to consider the Forum as action of all computer industry, it is impossible to forget, that Intel corporation is slantwise in the lead corporation substantially defining development of all branch. For this reason the big attention performances on heads of Intel, for example, call Patrick Gelsingera, the Vice-president and the Main Technical Director of corporation of Intel (Patrick Gelsinger, Vice President, Chief Technology Officer, Intel Corporation). For example, its reports on IDF Spring 2002 in San Francisco (February) and in Munich (May).


Its reports on IDF can be considered as the original guidebook to perspective processing techniques. Thus implementation of some of the described processing techniques will be carried out not in two-three years, and as Patrick Gelsinger has marked, within 10 years.

Key to the described future, according to Patrick Gelsingera, Moore's well-known law is. More three tens years ago Gordon Moore (Gordon Moore, Chairman Emeritus of Intel Corporation) has predicted regular doubling of number of transistors in difficult electronic arrangements. Further Moore's law has been modified: doubling of number of transistors in processors occurs each 1,5-2 years. It is named now Moore's as law (Moore's Law).

Moore's law became a rule for experts and the businessmen, allowing to predict potential possibilities future, yet not created products.

At the analysis of possibilities of current technologies there is a question on periods of validity of the law of Moore. How long computer chips will evolve on an exponential low? Whether there is a limit to ambitions of the implementators increasing quantity of transistors in chips at constant reduction of the sizes of units?

Really, in 80th years experts dreamt of processing technique 1 microns, and argued on periods of reaching and possibility of overcoming of this boundary. Today speech already goes about barrier overcomings to 0,01 microns (10 nanometers). When as a result of reduction of the sizes of units there will occur permanently removed limit? And when, at last, Moore's law will cease to operate?

Here it is necessary to remind, that the processor of Intel 4004 released in 1971 contained 2 250 transistors, Intel 486DX — 1 180 000, and Intel of Pentium 4 with kernel Northwood is already 55 million transistors. And the next fifteen years, according to Krejga Barrett, the head of corporation of Intel (Craig Barrett, Chief Executive Officer, Intel Corporation) development of solid-state technologies will allow implementators of processors to realise the products working on clock rate of 30 GHz and containing 2 billion of transistors.

Perspectives of the law of Moore Patrick Gelsinger estimates as follows: "Someone speaks 10 years, 15 years. I promise to you, that while I will not retire, at least, 2,5 decades, Moore's law will exist. The future never was for us such clear as it is now. We will move forwards together with Moore's linked to development of business and processing technique the law. And the end while out of sight".

In process of development of electronic and computer processing techniques complexity and productivity of processors permanently raises. On this path there was a set of objective obstacles, but they were step-by-step overcome by scientists and engineers at the expense of creation of new architectures and perfection of the newest processing techniques. And on IDF the copies of processors working on frequencies of exceeding 4 GHz are already shown.

Basis of the future models will make so-called teragertsevye transistors. In the performance Patrick Gelsinger: "We consider this transistor as absolutely new fundamental architecture. And we will expand this direction in the following of 10 years and further".

Certainly, high frequencies of the future products will demand new konstruktivov for processors and tanks of system units. But also the processing technique on which the future high-powered units will be made, demands appropriate development. With that end in view experts of Intel have made some fundamental reachings in the field of lithograph. It is a question of program EUVL — Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Mass production of chips on this processing technique is planned on second half of current decade. But, as Patrick Gelsinger has underlined, it is supposed to advance the given perspective processing technique and further, even after the lapse of 2010. It will allow to release very difficult products with the big number of the transistors working on very high frequencies and allocated on semiconducting crystals of critical dimensions.

However high density of the active components allocated on silicon chips, generates a problem of high density of energy of the heat release already today exceeding level of a hot plate, and the next years will reach and even will exceed level of density of energy of a nuclear reactor. It very much high levels, but for experts are not present doubts, that all problems arising in engineering process of new products, will be successfully solved.

It means, that formulated earlier as the prediction of regular doubling of transistors, Moore's law step-by-step extends and on other units of difficult electronic circuits.

Here it is necessary to remind, that at the heart of overwhelming quantity of chips released now usage of traditional field MOS devices lays (MOS-processing technique field-effect transisors — Metal-oxide-semiconductor contain on three contact electrodes-areas — the Source, the Drain, the Lock; the current a transistor Source-drain is controlled by the power submitted on a lock; the current through the Lock is practically equal to null).

Estimating possibilities of modern architectures and processing techniques, it is impossible to forget and about development of alternative processing techniques and units. Already today there are absolutely new multifunctional arrangements which include not only transistors, but also both absolutely new structures and units which were unavailable earlier to engineers and scientists.

Memory, sensors and converters, and also mechanical units and processing techniques get to this set, for example, optical, wireless. Probably, it is necessary to include biological and liquid structures in this number, for example on the basis of difficult organic molecules. By the way, liquid crystals concern organic substances, of course, not such difficult, as, for example, DNA on which basis, predictably, in some decades extremely difficult, powerful and compact computers can be constructed.

Thanks to the newest units and processing techniques scientists and engineers can already in the nearest some years essentially expand functionality of perspective arrangements. Especially it concerns the arrangements constructed on the basis of application of communication and computer processing techniques. Perspectivity of multiplexing of the given processing techniques was found by the reflexion in appearance even the special term — commputing, derivated from words computing and communications (COMMunications-comPUTING).

Now scientists and engineers give the big attention to development to products in which basis wireless processing techniques (wireless) are put. Implementators of Intel name it "Radio Free Intel". Here the main objective — to make radio resources so cheap and integrated, how much it in general is possible.

And for reaching of this purpose already there is a number of the developed perspective processing techniques.

One of such perspective processing techniques — MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System — Microelectrical Mechanical Systems).

As a basis silicon uses. Considering and banking its mechanical properties with possibilities of new processing technique of lithograph, it is possible to create a considerable quantity of very interesting multifunctional arrangements. New arrangements can combine in themselves as mechanical units, for example, electromotors, the relay and switches, and electronic units and the radio chains, allowing to create miniature radio transmitters and radio receivers.

By the way, it is necessary to remind, that the optics of the modern products, which operation is calculated for a visible band of a spectrum, created on the basis of glass. And glass, as is known, represents silicon oxide, a substance actively used in modern chips.

Using processing technique MEMS it is possible in a uniform cycle on a silicon wafer to grow up structures of monolithic microcircuits, mechanical parts of the arrangement, and even optical systems with necessary properties. Thus as mechanical arrangements it is possible to grow up the difficult constructions consisting and gears and electromotors. So on silicon bodies it is possible to create, for example, miniature photos and videocameras with all their electronic and mechanical parts, including optics. Thus products can be so miniature, that a little from them will easily be located, for example in a thimble.

Processing technique MEMS allows to reduce essentially the size and cost of passive components: inductors, capacitors, quartz resonators, etc. These units are typical and necessary in vysokochastnyh electrical chains of radio.

In wireless processing techniques there is a set of perspectives, set of standards and the application environments. And one of directions over which experts of Intel work, roaming is. Users can be hooked up to a usual wire local area network (wire LAN), then to be disabled from it and to pass to a wireless network (wireless LAN) and then to fall outside the limits operation last and will switch to some global wireless network (wireless WAN). The processing technique expanding standard concept of a network, based on concept transportable IP and its extensions is already developed. Implementators of Intel tried to create not simply some automatic transition from one network in another, and the integral completed system which covers all spheres to a regional wireless network. And, by the way, will include also such important things, as safety, VPN, etc. Thus, obviously, it is necessary to provide high-grade operation of applications (saving IP) on all path from one standard of a network in another.

The following perspective processing technique is a silicon radio and dynamically reconfigured radio.

Part 2.

In article substances IDF Spring 2002 and documents of the corporation of Intel have been used.

It is published in log "you and your computer"

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