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The transportable world in the future (on substances IDF Spring 2003)

Victor Rudometov
Evgenie Rudometov

Development of computer and electronic branches of the industry grounded on usage of modern high technologies, is impossible without close international integration and a wide exchange of the scientific and technical information. Thus the rapid progress demands considerable financial expenses for realisation of perspective researches, development and output. In conditions of a hard competition the price of errors of planning and production can be extremely high. As a result of perfect errors not only small corporations, but also leaders of the industry with multi-billion turns have chance to quit the stage and become only objects of nice history of development of information technologies. For this reason the firms of branch linked to high technologies, require the reliable reference points providing effective forward development. For this important purpose numerous meetings of leading businessmen, scientific, technical experts and representatives of mass media also are. Regular actions IDF (IDF - Intel Developer Forum, further — Intel Forum) are one of examples of such meetings.

Intel forum is led twice in a year and devoted high technologies in the field of computers and electronics. It is led in the form of visiting sessions in the different countries. Each of these sessions of the Forum of Intel is the largest action for implementators of hardware and the software. By the way, one of such actions was led in 2002 in Moscow.

At meetings of the Forum of Intel the advanced products are discussed. The largest experts of branch mention perspective directions, and also possibilities of existing and future processing techniques are parsed.

In the end of February, 2003 in San Jose (the USA, California) has transited the Forum of Intel of implementators first in this year and experts of electronics, opened a spring train of sessions, — IDF Spring 2003.

Presented at this Forum of Intel the newest products and processing techniques have put in pawn a basis of many directions. They long time will make the big impact on development not only the branches of the industry linked to computers and electronics, but, considering value of modern information technologies in a modern economic mechanism, and on all economy of the majority of the countries of the world. Thus the important part of the accelerated implantation of the newest developments in a life and business is announcement and popularisation of the perspective reachings presented on this action. Substantially it was carried out through reports of leading experts of branch.

Perhaps, mobility and wireless access were the main directions of the last Forum of Intel. In particular, leading experts of some the largest organisations had been stated a number of basic ideas concerning that, how representatives of the hi-tech industry substantially defining its evolution, see development of these two directions in the near future, for example, in the future 2004.

In the reports doctor Shrikant Takkar (Dr. Shreekant S. Thakkar, Director, Mobile Platform Architecture Mobile Platforms Group) and John Kalhun (John Calhoon, Technical Evangelist Windows Hardware Experience Group, Microsoft Corp) have sounded the main requirements which are superimposed on the transportable arrangements, providing access to network resources, for example, to the Internet. These major requirements are:

Uninterrupted, reliable wireless access,
Innovative form factor,
High efficiency,
The big operating time from the battery.

For implementation of the given requirements three directions of development of the transportable processing techniques, the received following English-speaking names have been offered:

Always Best Connected
Location Aware Computing
Always-On Secondary Display

"Always On" (AON) is the mode providing a constant finding on link. Urgency AON follows from this, that the user of transportable resources, advancing inside and out of firm, wants, and quite often and should to remain permanently on link. AON access allows to provide to the necessary information far off. Thus many tasks can be fulfilled even in the conditions of the closed notebook. As a variant of such task it is possible to result, for example, synchronisation of the information with a corporate server. Thanks to the specified mode of maintenance of their portable means energopotreblenie is minimum, that allows to use the transportable computer essentially longer the usual. For realisation of it the computer is in addition equipped with the miniature screen, as a rule, a low-resolution on a computer cover. Thanking AON and to this additional screen there is a possibility to accept and read e-mail, to work with an organizer etc. Not opening a notebook and saving a considerable part of energy of the built in secondary generator.

Now formally there are already two concepts AON oriented to the next two years.

One, intended to implementation in 2004, is named as "Office Warrior" and means:

Continuous network access to time of moving in firm,
The miniature screen on a cover of the computer,
Continuous communication WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network),
Synchronisation, for example, with Exchange, at a closed notebook,
Essentially increased operating time of the battery in mode AON.
The user has possibility to advance on firm, between divisions and buildings, permanently remaining on link through closed, but a working notebook. As the main screen of the transportable computer is disconnected, energopotreblenie all arrangement remains on a minimum level. However performance of working functions is frequent enough the user is carried out not only within native firm, and, leaving its limits to remain the requirement and necessity quite often feels for a network.

Realisation of the second concept carrying a name "Road Warrior" provides implementation of the given requirement. Thus the computer remains packed into a bag, but continues to work in a network, communicating and being clocked, for example, with other self-contained unit. As the last the mobile phone or PDA with link Bluetooth can appear. As a result at arrival of the letter or the message on the transportable computer it is handled to a mobile phone where can be read the user of the given transportable resources. Thus, the concept "Road Warrior" is the essential extension "Office Warrior" and will be already extended in 2005. It includes:

Continuous network access to moving time inside and outside of firm,
The miniature screen on a self-contained unit, for example, a mobile phone,
Continuous communication WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network),
Still bolshee a battery operating time at mode AON.

The additional screen on a cover of the computer and link with transportable arrangements

Presentation Always-On in operation on Anand Chandrasekera's key report

Coming back to earlier formulated requirements, it is necessary to mark, that there were not considered two more items. It "Always Best Connected" and "Location Aware Computing".

"Always Best Connected" (ABC) — permanently best interconnection, as a matter of fact, means an automatic choice optimal for hardware of the user of type of interconnection. Thus the optimal type of interconnection means support smooth, without appreciable disrupture of link, switching between Wi-Fi, GPRS and LAN, transparent registration in networks WLAN and WWAN type, uniform billingovoj systems.

Type of networks depending on distance

Dependence between a network, distance and capacity

Switching between networks of the different standard should be carried out automatically by the criteria set by the user. For an example of the last capacity of a data link, the price, a power consumption of the accumulator battery of the computer on link maintenance, and also others often not less important criteria can be. It is finite, obvious, that successful operation of transportable resources is impossible without appropriate support by the applied and system software, we develop the corporations occupied with implementation of given projects. Affirms, that many modern operating systems already have some built in resources of switching from one network on another. Among them such popular systems, as Windows 98, Windows 2000 and Windows XP were named.

The uniform system of authentification in diverse wireless systems can be carried out through usage SIM of a map of network GSM/GPRS. And itself GPRS interconnection is not required. Integration SIM into the computer can occur to interface usage mPCI Express or USB.

It is necessary to mark, that the reports of Forum IDF linked to transportable subjects, carried not only theoretical character. On one of numerous presentations operation ABC has been shown. In the course of show for the computer jointed to a network through USB, have pulled out USB a cord. Thus, that is surprising, working capacity of system has not been broken, as interconnection automatically and has practically instantly switched on Wireless LAN. As a result task in view performance by transportable resources has successfully proceeded without an appreciable dwell. It became effective demonstrating of possibilities of the systems using current technologies which can be used successfully, for example, in transportable arrangements.

Useful addition of functions of transportable resources is implementation last of the enumerated requirements. It is a question about "Location Aware Computing" (LAC). LAC is all-round usage of the information on current location of the user. For an example orientation to districts, usage of maps, paths, retrieval of the concrete address in another's city, etc. can be. Implementation of many of these possibilities is carried out by high rate within several last years.

Already now in many countries of the world various systems of hardware-software resources of the help to drivers of cars to whom maps are given, the information on stoppers, guidelines on planning and optimisation of paths, etc. use. Thus the interface between the user and the specified resources means usage not only the traditional methods linked to usage of various variants of keyboards and displays, but also and vocal indication and handle.

For one more good demonstrating of possibilities of current technologies weather forecast reception in any point of a planet can be, for example. This information is already accessible to the user of transportable resources at any time, even when it is in path. Usually for reception of the given information it is necessary to specify the city name in details. Now in the given tools there is nothing especial. It is already realised for many sites of our planet. And numerous specialised sites on the Internet are this purpose.
However, using processing technique LAC, the user of appropriate transportable resources already can send in the near future in an automode co-ordinates in meteorological centre for reception of the forecast for district in which it is at present. Thus requested information can be received also in an automode, that, certainly, conveniently, especially for the users who are not possessing a professional knowledge in computer processing techniques.

The specified example to some extent shows known enough and already partially realised tools having, it is possible to tell, global distribution and calculated for very wide band of users. However possibilities of processing technique LAC can use and rather limited number of users for local, narrow applications. So, for example, by means of LAC in firm retrieval of such resources as the printer or a cash dispense can be facilitated.

Special mechanisms which will be capable to define location with comprehensible accuracy are necessary for implementation enumerated and many other things possibilities. Programs which, using the obtained data, will give to the user as specified, and many other things the additional possibilities facilitating operation, leisure and in general a life of people in fast varying world around besides, are required.

And such resources, really, appear. Some of them carry out constant monitoring of sources of the information. So, for example, Intel corporation gives processing technique Location Fuser. Implementation of this processing technique provides collection of the information from set of sources and continuous transmission finite given to the operating system. The operational system jointly with special applications carries out processing of this information and gives results to the user in sort convenient for usage. And in any cases probably and decision-making in an automode already without interference of the person that facilitates solution of many problems, for example, even what are linked to industrial processing techniques.

From demonstrating of processing technique Location Fuser

Some methods of definition of location of user WWAN which are accessible already today:

Cell-ID Allows to define the place postal index where there is a user. The given processing technique is already accessible today, but equipment upgrade is necessary.
On the basis of GSM, accuracy from 50 to 100 metres.
CDMA with usage AGPS, accuracy to 10 metres.
Global Positioning System (GPS): the processing technique with usage of companions, accuracy to 10 metres, exists possibility of monitoring of movement, low efficiency at usage in premises.

Together with hardware mechanisms the appropriate specialised software supporting and developing concept LAC is developed also. For a bright measurement Microsoft MapPoint.NET can be, for example. It is the software product which is a platform for software engineering for LAC.
It is necessary to mark, that some of problems and examples of usage of transportable processing techniques have found reflexion in one of reports of the vice-president of Intel of Patrick Gelsingera (Patrick Gelsinger, Vice President, Chief Technology Officer, Intel Corporation). In the performance it has described, what will be factory on production while only developed microprocessors.

Fragments from Patrick Gelsingera's report

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