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Overclocking — an effective remedy of increase in productivity of computers (the Part I)

Evgenie Rudometov, Victor Rudometov.

Article is grounded on substances of books "PC: customisation, optimisation and dispersal" — 2 izd., the reslave. And dop. — SPb: BHV, 2000, 336 and "the Arrangement of the multimedia computer".

Continuous and rather fast complicating of the software and applied tasks solved by means of personal computers demands appropriate increase in computational capability. This increase is carried out, as a rule, at the expense of periodic changeover of accessories by more high-speed models that is accompanied by quite often considerable expenses of financial assets. However to raise productivity of new computers or it is essential to prolong period of expedient maintenance obsolete, but still efficient systems it is possible by means of accurate and cautious performance of procedure of dispersal (overclocking) computer accessories. Possibility of an intensification of their operation is caused by a high technological level of production of modern accessories, for example, processors, and also perfection of their architectures, pawning big and quite often redundant spare of productivity to realise which it is possible by means of usage of the forced modes — dispersal.

Simultaneously with development of electron technologies and perfection of the architecture of computers constant complicating of applied tasks is observed. Among the given tasks solved by means of personal computers, an escalating share the tasks of multimedia demanding more and more resources, and mainly make increases in productivity of computers.

The problem of the limited resources, including disadvantage of productivity, dares, as a rule, by means of periodically executable upgrade (upgrade), that is not always comprehensible from the financial point of view. Besides, upgrade sometimes is not possible on design features of used accessories, for example, motherboards. In this case it is frequent, when resources of customisation and optimisation of operation of accessories already are completely settled, the problem of insufficient productivity can be solved by means of cautious performance of operation of dispersal (overclocking), carried out basically at the expense of increase in clock rates of units and computer subsystems.

It is necessary to mark, that the similar increase in productivity is reached by some lowering of dependability of operation and abbreviation of a resource of accident-free maintenance. However in many cases it is quite admissible. Really, in the conditions of constant development of computer processing techniques and development more and more perfect completing period of expedient maintenance of sites and computer technology units it is permanently reduced. Quite often taking into account appearance of modern, better and efficient components begins economically unprofitable to maintain out-of-date prototypes. Despite considerable period of possible accident-free maintenance of the accessories reaching of tens of years, many users long before the expiration of the given period try to substitute these, as a rule, serviceable and well working units, on more efficient samples. So, for example, it is expedient to substitute processors each two-three years, despite possibility of their operation during tens years. Therefore possible some lowering of dependability and an operation resource (for example, with 10 till 5 years) is often justified and quite admissible, as all resource all the same will not be worked out. However for the similar point of view are available both the supporters, and opponents.

Despite the ambiguous ratio of computer experts and ordinary users to dispersal a number of known and dear corporations admit in the products possibility of maintenance of accessories in the forced modes. For an example modern videoadapters can be, for example, video chips and chips of which local memory are quite often installed in the modes characterised by raised clock rates which values exceed the recommended metrics installed by implementators and manufacturers of given accessories. By the way, ASUSTeK corporations and Abit already long time with a view of rise of stability of operation of systems in the motherboards de facto (by default) instal the raised values for power supply of videoadapters, memories, a chip set and input/output chains: with 3,3 In to 3,4-3,5 d, Compaq corporation long time released servers with dispersed processors AMD. The necessary temperature mode was supported by appropriate systems in which basis processing techniques and KryoTech corporation arrangements are put, developed by the given corporation together with AMD. Nevertheless, it is necessary to recognise, that the forced modes selected and installed by users for completing computers all the same are inexpedient for the systems demanding osobonadezhnoj, trouble-free operation.

It is necessary to underline, that possibility of usage of the forced modes which are a basis of dispersal, it is caused by a considerable technological store of modern accessories, the central place among which occupy, certainly, the processor. Thus possibilities of dispersal to the greatest degree appear in the first models of the processors having new architectures and released on new processing techniques. As an example it is possible to result well-known and popular processors of the corporation of Intel, created on the basis of kernel Coppermine.

Processors of Pentium III c have been developed by kernel Coppermine with the registration before the stored operating experience of processors of Pentium II, Pentium III and Celeron (Mendocino). The first representatives of this bar have been released in the end of 1999 Processors of Pentium III c by kernel Coppermine 0,18 microns have been fulfilled on solid-state technology . As well as earlier released processors of Pentium III with kernel Katmai, the new processors which have come to them in the stead, support MMX and SSE. Unlike the predecessors they have received cache memory L2 built in a chip, the size in 256 Kbytes and calculated for operation with frequency of a kernel, that to some extent makes related them with processors Celeron with kernel Mendocino. However bolshy cache memory L2 size, its expanded from 64 bats to 256 bats the internal bus, the improved algorithm of its operation (256-bit Advanced Transfer Cache), and also more perfect architecture of a kernel have allowed to achieve considerably more high efficiency not only in comparison with dispersed processors Celeron (Mendocino), but also concerning processors of Pentium III (Katmai) with the cache memory of 512 Kbytes maintained at the same frequencies.

It is necessary to mark, that at the bar of processors of Pentium III c models as for frequency of bus FSB of 100 MHz, and 133 MHz oriented to frequency are present kernel Coppermine  . Last have in the denotation "B character, when necessary, to distinguish them from the processors intended for frequency of the bus of 100 MHz. For the models having the same internal frequencies, as processors of Pentium III with kernel Katmai, in the name"E character uses.

From quality konstruktiva processors have been selected SECC2 (Slot 1 plug ) and FC-PGA (Socket 370 plug ), with the subsequent abbreviation of release of the first and step-by-step overgrowth of production of the second.

It is necessary to mark, that all processors of Pentium III (Coppermine) have the fixed multiplier — the multiplication factor of frequency linking internal and external frequency, therefore dispersal of processors is possible only at the expense of increase in external frequency — frequencies of bus FSB of the processor. Thus many copies of the first representatives of the bar of the given processors calculated for frequency of 100 MHz, without any problems admit increase in frequency of bus FSB to 133 MHz and above. However the raised values of frequency buses FSB installed in the course of dispersal of processors of Pentium III (Coppermine), superimpose certain requirements of the accessories which operation is carried out in the forced modes.

For support of successful dispersal of the processor and reaching of a quiescent operation of the computer at frequency of bus FSB of 133 MHz it is necessary, that the main accessories, at least, met following requirements:

  • Dynamic storage units should correspond to specification PC133 or possess ability to work on frequency of 133 MHz. Or, that the chip set on which basis the system board is fulfilled, had possibility of lowering of frequency of the bus of memory of relative frequency FSB.
  • At the frequency divider of bus AGP 2/3 (i440BX, i440ZX, VIA Apollo Pro/Pro +, etc .) the videoadapter could work at the raised frequencies. Or, that the motherboard had the frequency divider for bus AGP 1/2.
  • The motherboard had the frequency divider for bus PCI 1/4, or all PCI-arrangements and a hard disk should work steadily and reliably at the installed frequencies.

Processors of Pentium III c kernel Coppermine in many respects not only have repeated success of the predecessors, but also in some cases have exceeded metrics of growth of frequencies and productivity, having confirmed with ample opportunities of dispersal existence for the bar of processors of this type of a considerable technological store. The given store gives possibility of rather big increase in external and internal frequencies that is accompanied by adequate growth of productivity of the processor and, accordingly, all system of the personal computer.

Results of the fulfilled researches linked to the analysis of possibility of operation in the forced mode of high-powered processors of Pentium III 550E (SECC2, Slot 1) and Pentium III 700E (FC-PGA, Socket 370) which architecture is constructed on a basis from kernel Coppermine are more low presented    .


In the course of performance of procedure of the dispersal executable at the careful control over a temperature mode of the processor by resources of hardware monitoring (hardware monitoring), lowering of stability and even complete loss of working capacity of the computer is possible. In this case it is expedient to return to the previous values of parametres.

It is necessary to remember, that at violation of temperature modes of maintenance of accessories, and also at increase in feeding powers their non-reciprocal output out of operation is possible.

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